Breaking Leather while in the Vehicle

There’s more to it than Drawing your Pistol in a Vehicle

Just a Note: The following topic is talked about in small groups of CCW carriers that are defensive minded and it involves gunfights while in a vehicle. Many people have written about it and we’re not the first.Take this article as a grain of salt. By all means take every tactical courses of fire that you can to learn about it first hand.

Drawing a pistol while in a vehicle is nothing new. The perspective from this is for the private Joe. Not from a contractor conducting exec-protection for a VIP or as a response force member for a nuclear convoy. Just you getting into your vehicle going to the store down the road.
There are many great readings on this, such as this one from Guns and Ammo. Matter of fact Kyle Lamb(author) goes into the intricacies of drawing but with the seat belt on.

I gotta admit thats another take on the subject, but it is also true that most of us do wear a seat belt while driving. Kyle goes into the different draws based on the type of carrier that you are and what can slow your draw down.

(Lukas Lamb photo)

What about the Pocket Pistol Carrier?
As you can see appendix carry is the fastest method to draw from in this illustration. Obviously, a quicker way if you were aware with the ability to see the future before the Sh!# hits the fan, is to have the pistol already out.
Which comes to mind another minority group of concealed carriers, they are the pocket pistol carrier.
This of course can be even more of a challenge to get your p shooter out. Struggling to get your hands into your pocket and fumbling to get a grip of the gun to pull it out.

If you’re the die-hard pocket pistol carrier, no worries there are special pants that caters to your needs. The special pants with specialize pockets with easy access can quicken your draw time. Something like this from CCW Breakaways, their pockets are designed to be a pocket holster. Breaking leather, in this case is breaking pockets that makes it easy to get to your pistol safely.

Which carry is best for a Vehicle?
I am not going to try and commando this keyboard to tell you that X is better to use than Y. The short answer is have the pistol out and ready, but be sure it can be quickly accessed. This can be from your crotch, secret bat compartment, the crevice between the door and your seat, etc.. You decide and play with that.

Last if you want more information from that have trained people from all sorts of background. Look into Craig Douglas of ECQC, Tony Blauer of Blauer Tactical Systems, Matt Graham of Graham Combat. They cover everything from gunfights while engaged in a vehicle to extreme close quarter where you can smell the bad guy/gal’s bad breath. Just to give you an idea of extreme close=quarter, here’s a fight in a vehicle that involves a pistol. Btw, its a female thats defending against the male passenger.

American Built Arms Company Launches the A*B Arms M-LOK Polymer Picatinny Rails

Glen Rock, PA (August 4, 2021) – American Built Arms Company
(AB Arms brand) is proud to introduce their newest product; the AB Arms M-LOK Polymer Picatinny Rails.
The AB Arms M-LOK Polymer Picatinny Rails are designed and engineered for military, law enforcement, and firearms enthusiasts. Compact and lightweight, the AB Arms M-LOK
Polymer Picatinny Rails come in a three (3) rail combo pack,
along with the individual four (4), five (5) and seven (7) slot
configurations. All rail packs include the appropriate M-LOK

  • Designed and manufactured in the U.S.A. by a Veteran-Owned company
  • Proprietary formula of heat stabilized nylon reinforced with high strength fibers
  • Comes with M-LOK manganese phosphate coated T-Nuts and 10 x 24 – ½ inch flat top screws

“The AB Arms M-LOK Polymer Picatinny Rails were a logical evolution from our LTF Picatinny Rails as the M-LOK standard has become the industry standard,” said Jason Combs, President and Founder of American Built Arms Company. He added, “at AB Arms, we believe that buying Made in the USA
products don’t have to be expensive.”

M-LOK hardware is also available individually at or in bulk
quantities for OEM customers. Contact American Built Arms Company at for more details.
About American Built Arms Company:
Headquartered in Glen Rock, Pennsylvania, in an area with a long tradition of
manufacturing excellence and craftsmanship, American Built Arms Company (AB Arms) was founded in 2010 on the principles of Honor, Service and Integrity. AB Arms is a Veteran-
owned, Type 07/NFA FFL, privately held manufacturing company providing the defense industry,
security and law enforcement, sporting goods and firearms owners with American-made, quality
firearms products and accessories. Check out for more information.

Pack a “Punch” with New Bullet Line

Federal’s diverse budget-friendly choices for concealed carry check the boxes – even come in .22 LR.

Story by Phil Massaro, Photos by Massaro Media Group

Not all handgun bullets are created equal. My dad – Ol’ Grumpy Pants – still relies on a mixture of lead flat nosed bullets and military ball ammo to feed his .38 Special and .45 ACP, and while I certainly don’t want to be shot by either of the classic bullet designs, I am well aware that modern designs have a multitude of advantages.
While I also enjoy the full metal jackets and cast lead bullets – though I usually use them for target practice unless we’re talking about hard-cast hunting bullets – I rely on premium handgun bullets in my everyday carry guns. The majority of my handgun ammunition consists of Federal’s Hydra-Shok and HST, as the pair have proven to be the most consistent in the FBI protocol testing, and they shoot accurately in my handguns. But as wonderful as that pair are, they are expensive to produce and equally expensive to purchase. Maybe there is room for a middle-of-the-road choice that blends the best features for the citizen to carry in a defensive weapon – a bullet that will save your bacon yet both penetrate and expand reliably.

The Federal 124-grain 9mm Luger load is a great choice for a low-recoiling, short-barreled carry gun.
Federal checked that box with the release of their Punch ammunition line. Relying on the wealth of experience gained during decades of building what law enforcement considers to be the best handgun bullets available, Federal set out to produce a simple, effective and affordable handgun bullet for the masses. The goal was one that will feed properly when it has to, and give the necessary accuracy in addition to the blend of expansion and penetration needed to stop a threat. Assessing the Hydra-Shok, Hydra-Shok Deep and HST, and removing the costly features that the FBI and other agencies require to pass their protocols, Federal wiped the slate clean and developed the Punch bullet.

The Punch line includes many popular handgun calibers, including the beefy 10mm Auto. (FEDERAL PREMIUM)
THE PUNCH LINE is rather diverse, including the classic autoloading cartridge like the 9mm Luger, .40 S&W, 10mm Auto and .45 ACP, as well as the .38 Special in the +P guise and, much to my surprise, .22 Long Rifle. The projectiles designed for the centerfires all have common traits: they are copper-jacketed hollowpoints with the jacket skived to initiate expansion. The entire product line is loaded in nickel-plated cases for smooth feeding and long-term corrosion-resistance. My own hands, replete with acidic sweat, can tarnish a brass case quickly when I handle them often, and I appreciate the benefits of a nickel-plated case, whether on a safari in the heat of Africa or in my everyday carry gun.

“Concealed-carry permit holders, especially new shooters, need an uncomplicated answer to the question, ‘What ammo do I need for self-defense?’” said Chris Laack, Federal handgun ammunition product manager. “Things to consider such as function, reliable ignition, barrier performance, terminal performance, ballistics and other considerations are a lot to digest for most people. What consumers really need to know is it will function in their gun every time and that it will be effective stopping a threat as quickly as possible. Punch is our easy answer for them.”

Added Laack, “Punch is the first Federal Premium-branded personal defense line we made that was not specifically designed for law enforcement. Punch ammo was created based on what we’ve learned over 30-plus years of being the leader in law enforcement handgun ammunition.”

A federal Punch bullet recovered from bare gel; note the wide expansion. (FEDERAL PREMIUM)
Unlike Federal’s law enforcement bullets, which are designed to perform well when fired through a variety of barriers like steel and plywood, Punch ammo is a Federal Premium product designed specifically with the personal defender in mind. During the development of Punch ammunition, Federal’s engineering team set out to create a brand-new Federal Premium bullet that excelled in evaluations that were most relevant to typical self-defense scenarios, primarily bare gel and heavy clothing. They used what they’ve learned about jacket skives, which metals to use and other aspects of handgun bullet design, and applied that to engineering the optimum self-defense bullet.
“Many personal defenders think, ‘If it works for law enforcement, then it’s good for me.’ That is a great guideline and still our ultimate recommendation,” said Laack. “But that may add features not necessarily required for everyone’s daily carry.” What are the major differences between the premium designs and Federal’s new Punch? Well, due to the requirements of the various law enforcement offices, the HST and Hydra-Shok need to perform in a number of different mediums, including solid barriers, heavy clothing, auto glass and more, resulting in a stiff bullet with fantastic penetration.
Make no mistake, there is absolutely nothing wrong with relying on these bullets, but if you look at the most common defensive situations – those in which the goal is to either neutralize the threat or to get yourself to safety – this level of bullet may not be needed, and in some circumstances can result in over penetration.
The right and need to save one’s own life, or the lives of family and others, is undeniable, but the risk of hitting an innocent bystander should be a concern. And just as when using a rifle in a defensive situation, the risk of wounding or killing someone behind the perpetrator when using too stiff a bullet is a reality. The Punch is designed for the citizen who needs to use their handgun to save themselves or others, and it concentrates on that situation.

The frontal view of a Punch bullet upset, expanded to a wide diameter for energy transfer. (FEDERAL PREMIUM)
I USED A few different handguns to test the Federal Punch, including my dad’s Colt Officer’s Model Special .22 LR revolver, a Sig P938 subcompact 9mm, my Smith & Wesson Model 36 snubnose .38 Special, and my beloved Sig Sauer 1911 STX in .45 ACP.

Field results: the Federal Punch just plain shoots. I put targets out at 10 and 15 yards – further than the 7-yard standard – to assess the accuracy results, and came away very happy. Of the lineup, I spend the most time with the S&W .38 and the Sig Sauer STX .45 ACP, and the targets confirm that, though the other guns were more than accurate enough. In the autoloaders, there were no feeding or extraction problems at all, and the revolvers all ejected smoothly with no pressure signs whatsoever.

The Punch .38 Special +P load complements the classic snubnosed revolver very well.
What Federal has done is create a bullet unique to each cartridge, changing the geometry of the hollow point and jacket thickness to best serve each design. The six Punch centerfire options include a .380 Auto 85-grain offering with a muzzle velocity of 1,000 feet per second, a .38 Special +P 120-grain load at 1,070 fps, a 9mm 147-grain load at 1,150 fps, a .40 S&W 165-grain load at 1,130 fps, a 10mm Auto 200-grain load at 1,100 fps, and a .45 Auto 230-grain load at 890 fps.
All the ammo I tested hit the target at point of aim, with the sole exception of the .38 Special +P load, which hit a couple inches high from my gun. The .22 LR Punch load features a 29-grain lead-core bullet with a heavy nickel jacket – not plating – and a flat meplat.
The lead core is specifically engineered to perform well out of the shorter barrels of defensive handguns. “We’ve talked about making a .22 LR defensive load for some time,” said Dan Compton, Federal’s manager of shotshell and rimfire ammunition. “We finally decided that people are already carrying .22 LRs, so we might as well build a .22 bullet optimized for protection. We’re not trying to replace the 9mm. We decided that for a .22 defense bullet, penetration was more important than expansion.”

This Colt revolver gave consistent results
with the Federal Punch .22 LR 29-grain load.
Five shots from author
Phil Massaro’s Sig
Sauer 1911 in .45 ACP
at 10 yards in a tight
group builds all sorts
of confidence.
The 29-grain bullet out penetrated the .25 Auto with a 50-grain bullet and the .32 Auto with a 60-grain hollow point; the .22 LR Punch load gave a penetration depth of 13.75 inches in bare gelatin.
Federal’s Punch line looks at results in bare gel and through heavy clothing only; those are the parameters most closely associated with defensive situations. At roughly two-thirds to three-quarters of the price of the premium stuff, it can stretch your shooting dollar considerably without compromising effectiveness.
Considering the day-to-day rigors of carry ammunition – daily exposure to weather, heat, air conditioning, sweaty hands, etc. – the sealed primers and nickel cases of the Punch ammo will certainly show the advantages. As ammo hits the shelves again, thank goodness, try a box of Punch in your everyday carry gun. I think you’ll be happily surprised with the results.

ADCO Aselkon IT1-G

You may not be aware of this, but there are lots of shotguns coming out of Turkey. Some are high quality, and others are not. Many of the top shotgun manufacturers are having their premier shotguns made in Turkey. You may be spending a large sum of money for a particular brand that may be using Turkish manufacturers that are putting their brand name on the shotgun.
I have been asked to evaluate an Aselkon shotgun being manufactured in Turkey and being imported by ADCO. It looks like many higher priced shotguns on the market.
The first thing I noticed when I picked up this shotgun was the weight. It is light weight and comfortable to maneuver. The basic specifications on the shotgun are that it is semiautomatic, weighs 6.5 pounds, has replaceable chokes, a barrel length of 18.5 inches, and an overall length of 40 inches.

The shotgun was shipped with the barrel and forend disassembled. It did not go together as smoothly as I anticipated. I discovered that the forend and barrel had to be squeezed together. Once I took it apart several times, the assembly became smoother. When reinstalling the barrel into the receiver, follow the directions in the assembly portion of the manual. When the shotgun is new, the forend is stiff, and you must press the forend and barrel into the receiver as a unit. There are small plastic tabs on the base of the plastic forend and if you are not cautious, you could destroy these alignment tabs.

Once the shotgun is assembled, it is easy to notice the forend and the one-piece pistol grip have a very good fit to the receiver. These two components blended to the receiver flawlessly. The Askalon is equipped with an 18.5 in barrel and the different chokes allow for the shotgun to shoot a variety of loads for hunting or tactical use. What I really liked was the extended chamber extension that is chromed. During loading and unloading, the bolt only rides on the chromed barrel extension. This function will reduce the amount of lubrication necessary, which means you could shoot this shotgun in a dry, arid environment.

The sights are ghost ring with a high profile. They are adjustable for windage and elevation. With this sight, it was easy to get sight alignment and to reengage a target. Additionally, the high wings around the rear sight protect the ghost ring.

The sights are, also, mounted on a weaver-type rail that is fit on grooved slots cut into the receiver, with a screw holding it in place. The sight base allows for the mounting of scopes or other optical sights. Shooting the shotgun was very simple. It is a lightweight shotgun, so I was surprised that using standard number six shot, there was not a noticeable difference in the recoil. I shot a few slugs (because why not), and there was a noticeable increase in recoil. However, a lightweight shotgun, that is weather resistant and can shoot a variety of different loads, at a moderate price, is hard to beat.

By: Richard Vasquez, Retired ATF Tech Branch Chief. Dealers can inquire at many high quality sporting good wholesalers or my contact at ADCO at 800-775-3687 or for more information. Our website is at ADCO Arms Co., Inc. 34A Holton St. Woburn, MA 01801 tel: 781-935-1799 ADCO is a Service Disabled, Veteran Own, Small Business (SCVOSB)

Three Seconds Rule Cliche?

Is Three Seconds Rule the norm to Train with a Pistol?

When it comes to gun fighting most gun coaches/teachers will advise the “three shots in three seconds within 3 yards” rule of thumb for gun fight training.
How did these gun trainers come up with this rule of thumb? Some of these gun trainers like Claude Werner and Tom Givens speculate from their deep data diving provided from the LE agencies like the FBI, NYPD and other local agencies.
From the data a certain amount were broken up to display incidents that had occurred at certain ranges. The following images below illustrate this. Now just so everyone understand these data don’t really tell you the whole story (context) or its accuracy. Interpreting the data may be another discussion in itself.

Image from LuckyGunner

LAPD Image from LuckyGunner

NYPD Image from LuckyGunner

Looking at the above charts from the different LE agencies, there is a wide gap when trying to see the common core of the distance within the 3 yard. (9 ft.)
  • FBI – shows it at 25% of the crime
  • LAPD – shows it at 5.5% ” ” “
  • NYPD – shows it at 23% ” “
The data below is from Tom Givens gun trainer guru. This chart is from his book called “Concealed Carry Class”. The incidents from this are from his former students that he had documented. Yes, there isn’t as much incidents compared to the LE agencies, but it might be the most accurate. As you can see his chart really tells you where the range of these incidents had occurred at.

Rangemaster Image from LuckyGunner

Not sure if the Rule of Three term originally came from Tom Givens but the rationale behind this rule of thumb seems to be evident for self-defense with a pistol. This rule of thumb gives you a gauge to work(practice) on increasing your shooting skills for self-defense.
KR Training had a spin off of this training with a full size pistol supplemented with a pocket pistol. They also did their own analysis on this as well. You can read about it below.

Source: Some great reads to check out if you’re into this type of insights. Go to KR Training. As a matter of fact this short article was inspired from the great work that they have put into. Another one to check out is Claude Werner of Tactical Professor, John Correia of Active Self Protection and Chris Baker of Lucky Gunner blog.

Always be the Uncommon Man

Words of wisdom from Black Belt, Hand-to-Hand Combat Instructor and Bladesmith Ernest Emerson

Story and Photos by Paul Pawela

In the 2003 movie Secondhand Lions, a young boy played by Haley Joel Osment goes to stay with his two great-uncles for the summer. Although living modestly on a farm, it is rumored that the uncles, played by Michael Caine and Robert Duvall, are extremely wealthy and all the family members want their fortune The backstory is that Hub McCann (Duvall) was a legendary warrior for the French Foreign Legion for decades and was in many battles and wars.
He fell in love with a princess, married her, and fought off a powerful sheik in order to keep her. Unfortunately, she and their child died in childbirth. Hub tells his nephew this story, and gives him a speech that he’s titled “What Every Boy Needs to Know About Being a Man.”
The speech goes like this: “Sometimes the things that may or may not be true are the things a man needs to believe in the most: That people are basically good. That courage, honor and virtue mean everything. That power and money, money and power, mean nothing. That good always triumphs over evil. And I want you to remember this: That love, true love, never dies.”

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I HAD THE honor and privilege to hear a similar lecture by a real-life American legend, Ernest Emerson, at the 2021 Blade Show in Atlanta, Georgia. For those who don’t know who this American treasure is, Emerson is the founder and owner of Emerson Knives, Inc. and is considered “The Father of Tactical Knives,” as he has designed the most iconic and well-known combat knives in history. Emerson Knives have been issued to and used by the most elite counterterrorist teams in the world, including SEAL Team 6, Delta Force and the British Special Air Service, to name a few.

Amongst Emerson’s many achievements, he is a lifelong student of all deadly combat skills and has been bestowed with the title of Master-at-Arms. He is inducted into the prestigious Black Belt Hall of Fame and is a member of the United States Martial Arts Hall of Fame. Emerson is a tier one hand-to-hand combat and edged weapon instructor who has taught all branches of covert special operations and counter-terrorist teams.
Emerson also serves as an expert witness for the Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office in deadly force encounters, he has appeared on TV and radio too many times to count, and has been a technical expert on numerous award-winning movies. And that is not the half of this great man’s career, but for now it will have to suffice.

HIS SPEECH AT the Blade Show should be given to every red-blooded American boy who is about to become a man. I give you “Be the Uncommon Man” by Ernest Emerson:
“You are responsible for everything that happens to you – everything!
If you can make negative things happen in your life, then you can make positive things happen in your life!
Personal responsibility is your greatest responsibility.
“Self-discipline is the foundation for the strength of character; true self confidence and self-esteem is gained by seeking out the struggle against adversity – never by avoiding it.
“How do you know what your all is if you have never been pushed to your limits?
If you never pushed yourself past those limits?
“Humans need adversity to grow stronger.
‘If something is necessary, do it every day. If it isn’t, don’t do it at all’ – Dan Gable (one of the greatest college wrestlers of all time and the winningest college wrestling coach of all time!).
“Always be honest with yourself and be true to yourself and true to others. You can never be honest with others if you can’t be honest with yourself.

Author Paul Pawela (left) and Emerson
“Brutal honest self-evaluation is the foundation for becoming a better person. You can never improve yourself if you can’t admit or identify where you need improvement.
“Face your own worst enemy. The greatest opponent we will ever face is ourselves, for that opponent knows all our weaknesses and that gives him a strategic advantage. “Never blame anyone else or the system for your shortcomings or failures. If you do, then you will never be able to change the things in your life that will affect you in a positive way.
“Never practice easy; embrace the suck! “True self-confidence can only be gained through self-discipline. Be willing to accept sacrifice and suffering as the wages you must pay for accomplishment. Make discipline a habit.
“Moral integrity means always do the right thing no matter what the consequences; moral strength, like physical strength, is lost when not exercised on a regular basis.
“Impeccability, what is that? It’s a state where no one can find any faults in your behavior or character; strive for impeccability.
“We used to be a society and a country based on the ideas of selfsufficient, rugged individualism – today that is called toxic masculinity.
“The uncommon man is a man of honesty, personal responsibility, self-discipline and moral integrity.
“Never become civilized and always be the uncommon man!”

I HOPE AND pray to the Creator that I am alive the day I can give this very speech to my grandsons. If not, may it forever be immortalized in the pages of American Shooting Journal.
God bless America and all of its sons! And that’s my two cents!
Editor’s notes: For more on Ernest Emerson, contact Author Paul Pawela is a nationally recognized firearms and self-defense expert.

More than a Match

For Bryan Sikes, ‘Lessons Learned’ at Precision Rifle Series competitions have had applications for Special Ops Sniper Training Program.

Story by Bryan Sikes

“It was the PRS that helped us push the limits of not only our weapon systems, but also our focus and mental tenacity under stress,” says Sikes. “Few things induce more trainable stress scenarios than being on the clock for a stage and competing against some of the best precision rifle shooters in the world.”
Bryan Sikes has been heavily involved in the Precision Rifle Series since 2012, when his Army unit, 7th Special Forces Group, relocated to Florida. Sikes, a special operations sniper with multiple combat deployments to Afghanistan and a Purple Heart recipient, was finishing up his team time and transitioning into a sniper school instructor position.
“At that time, we were looking to improve, advance and modernize our sniper program,” explains Sikes. “A couple of us sought out ways in which to do that and laid the groundwork for what would be a total revamp of our program, due largely in part to the Precision Rifle Series. It was the PRS that helped us push the limits of not only our weapon systems, but also our focus and mental tenacity under stress. A difficult trait to train, but anyone who has been to these PRS matches knows the level of difficulty that is now common and how important it is to be able to maintain a high level of focus for every shot. Few things induce more trainable stress scenarios than being on the clock for a stage and competing against some of the best precision rifle shooters in the world.”

He continues, “We took a lot of our ‘lessons learned’ from shooting and competing in these matches and applied them to our sniper program. Since then, I can unquestionably say that the PRS has greatly improved the capabilities of our special operations snipers across the board. On the selfish side, it was always fun attending these matches, getting to know the community, and not having to come up with a training plan; we just showed up to these matches and drank from a fire hose.”
Now retired from special operations, Sikes is an avid PRS competitor, shooting in around 10 to 12 matches a year. He shoots in the open division, running rifles from GA Precision (where he also now works, building rifles and “training hungry shooters across the country,” he says). See sidebar for a full list of Sikes’ equipment.
“I couldn’t be happier to be a part of the shooting community. It’s the collective of people that really make competitive shooting what it is,” says Sikes. He adds, “I’m proud to say that I’ve made friends that have since become brothers while attending PRS events. Like brothers, the competitive spirit is always there. We still want to beat one another on our best days and there is no shortage of grief handed back when we don’t. Nothing like doing something at a match that your best friends can give you a hard time about for all of eternity.

“At this level of competition, it seems like the most visceral memories are the mistakes I’ve made at this match or that. Mistakes that sear into your brain in the hopes that you learn from them and come back better the next time around. Like I said, shooting matches is the best training there is; if you want to get good at shooting matches, then shoot matches.”
Editor’s note: For more on the Precision Rifle Series, visit

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The Versatile 10mm

First developed to combine the attributes of the 9mm Luger and the .45 ACP, this round is now one of the best handgun hunting cartridges made for semiautomatics.

Story and Photos by Jason Brooks

A comparison of 9mm, .357 Magnum, .40 S&W, 10mm, .45 ACP and .44 Magnum cartridges.
Handgun shooters know that two of the most popular calibers are the 9mm Luger (Parabellum) and the .45 ACP. The latter is slow but makes a big hole, while the faster 9mm tends to lose energy quickly once it hits the target but shoots fast and flat. In a perfect world, a gunmaker would bridge these two rounds to make a fast and hard-hitting bullet.
It is this very idea that led Lieutenant Colonel John “Jeff” Cooper to come up with what we now know as the 10mm Auto. Back in 1983, the search began by looking at the speed of the 9mm Luger and the energy of the .45 ACP. The idea was that if a round could shoot fast, which means flatter trajectory, and could hit hard, then it would fit the military’s need, as well as that of law enforcement and civilian use for self-defense. The 10mm was created by taking a .30 Remington rifle case and cutting it down to .992 inch and opening the mouth large enough to seat the 10mm (.400-inch) bullet.
Overall length is 1.240 inches up to an acceptable 1.260 inches. The round shoots 180-grain bullets very well, but loads are available for lighter and faster projectiles down to 135 grains, which shoot nearly 400 feet per second faster than the 115-grain bullet out of a 9mm. It is also loaded with 200-grain powerhouses that shoot around 300 fps faster than the 230-grain .45 ACP. It seems that Lt. Col. Cooper was onto something when the 10mm was developed.

FIRST CALLED THE 10mm Super, the cartridge never really shined. This could be because there was already a 10mm Super on the market so a name change had to be made; this set back the rise to fame, as shooters didn’t know what the 10mm was all about. In 1989, the FBI decided to issue the 10mm to their agents. This occurred after the shootout in Miami, Florida, in which five FBI agents were injured and two were killed when they attempted to arrest two bank robbers. The agents were armed with .357 Magnums and .38 Specials, both revolvers. After the incident the FBI realized they needed more firepower in their issued sidearms, both in ammo capacity and in bullet performance. Through testing, and like Lt. Col. Cooper, they decided the 10mm fit their needs. But there was one reason why the military and even the civilian world never really accepted the 10mm and that was felt recoil A fast and heavy round means there will be a bit of push back when you pull the trigger.
Smaller-framed agents couldn’t handle the recoil of the 10mm. When it comes to law enforcement, it is more important to hit your target with a light-shooting bullet than miss with a heavy one. For personal defense, a lot of times just producing a handgun will stop the encounter and then the loud bang could thwart the criminal. But for law enforcement, where each round has to be accounted for, it is imperative that the intended target is hit. Because of this, the FBI decided to go with another new round on the market, very similar to the 10mm, the .40 Smith & Wesson (S&W). The .40 S&W was built on the 10mm case and bullet, using the same 10mm projectile but in a shorter case that held less powder, shot slower and therefore had less recoil. Most law enforcement departments today use the .40 S&W.

Once again the 10mm loses its popularity before it really begins, but it doesn’t disappear completely. The 10mm Auto is a straight-walled cartridge that lends itself well to semiauto handguns. With faster velocities and harder-hitting bullets than the two most popular handgun rounds for self-defense, it took hunting guides and backcountry users to help this round shine. Some outdoor enthusiasts, including hunters, guides and hikers who ventured into grizzly bear country, would carry the light and fast .357 Magnum. Others would choose “hand cannons” such as the .500 Smith & Wesson, but most chose the .44 Magnum. All of these come in revolvers, which means limited ammo and slower followup shots, especially in single-action configurations while using one hand. Then gun manufacturers such as Kimber Arms, which teamed up with the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, started making the 10mm in the infamous 1911 model.

“With faster velocities and harder-hitting bullets than the two most popular handgun rounds for self-defense, it took hunting guides and backcountry users to help this round shine,” writes Brooks, whose Kimber Camp Guard 10mm – a collaboration with the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, thus the organization’s logo on the grip.
A TRIED-AND-TRUE DESIGN, the 1911 has been relied upon by the U.S. military in every war since World War I, until our armed forces switched to the faster 9mm Luger from the slow .45 ACP. So when it came time for Kimber and RMEF to come up with a handgun that would protect you in grizzly country, as well as function under stress with a time- and battle-tested platform, it only made sense they used the 1911. When it came to cartridges, it is no surprise that they chose the 10mm Auto. It has less recoil than the .44 Magnum, though it has near energy performance and hits harder than the .357 Magnum. Kimber came up with the 1911 Camp Guard, which sports a brushed silver frame, eight-round magazine and wood grips that are engraved with the RMEF logo and does the ever-overshadowed 10mm justice for the backcountry.
The Glock model 20 holds 15 rounds, nearly double that of the Kimber, and is often the choice of hunting guides. It is easy to use, nearly failsafe in harsh conditions and holds a lot of ammo. For the hunter, this extra ammo capacity is a bit much and adds weight to the handgun that is not needed. Of course you could not put all 15 rounds in the magazine but that goes against all training and recommendations, since the Glock model 20’s key selling point is that it does hold all that ammo.

For those who venture into bear country, they know the dangers are real. In the last 20 years there have been 60 fatal bruin attacks with 30 of those coming from grizzlies and a surprising 28 from black bears. Two were from polar bears and if you are attacked by a polar bear, then you have other concerns besides which handgun you are carrying, such as frostbite in July.
The 10mm hits hard enough to sting a grizzly and make it run away. A fatal shot would likely be at extremely close range and not necessarily instant unless hit in the head at the right angle. But stopping the attack is the end goal, not necessarily killing the grizzly on sight. But for black bears and other big game, the 10mm would do the job just fine, again at close ranges.

THE 10MM IS truly a semiautomatic handgun for the hunter. Those who choose to pursue deer, hogs, antelope, javelina, black bears and mountain lions with a handgun can carry the 10mm with confidence. For years the .357 Magnum was a popular choice and it always will be, but the 10mm ammunition manufacturers are marketing bullets for the hunter as well.
Hornady came out with a line of ammo last year known as Handgun Hunter. The bullet used in this line of ammunition is designed to hit hard and then expand faster than a traditional hollowpoint bullet. This is achieved by using a copper alloy that has a 95-percent weight retention and then the open cavity is filled with an elastomer material. When the bullet makes impact, the elastomer compresses, which pushes outward and causes the bullet to expand faster.

Thanks to this technology in bullet designs like this, a handgun is a viable tool for hunting. Other manufacturers such as Federal make lines of hunting-specific ammunition in the 10mm, including a 180-grain Trophy Bonded Bear Claw that leaves the muzzle at 1,275 fps. This round is perfect for deer-sized game, especially for hunters who use a tree stand where shots will be close and not rushed. For defending yourself in grizzly country, Federal also loads the 200-grain Swift A-Frame, which shoots 1,175 fps from the muzzle and at 100 yards is still traveling 1,020 fps. For a semiauto handgun, that is pretty fast and very hard-hitting with a 200-grain bullet.
The 10mm Auto is a good option for self-defense, either in the city or in the backcountry. It has been around for nearly 40 years, first developed to combine the attributes of the 9mm Luger and the .45 ACP, and is now one of the best handgun hunting cartridges made for semiautomatic firearms. When you need a lot of firepower and you need it now, the 10mm is one of the best options. Maybe it took so long to become popular because it is so versatile and each niche shooter couldn’t believe it would fit their needs, when in reality it fits them all.

The Patriot’s Call

The Revolutionary War’s Battle of Oriskany comes alive in the annual recreations of artisans, author.

Story by Frank Jardim
Photos by David Wright

Known as the CLA, the Contemporary Longrifle Association celebrates its 25th anniversary this August. This broadly inclusive organization was started by artists and scholars to promote and support the study and preservation of all the artisanal skills and crafts employed in early America, from making a flintlock Kentucky longrifle from a plank of wood and bar of iron, to the almost lost precolonial decorative art of Native American porcupine quill and moose-hair embroidery.

CLA members are an amazingly diverse and talented group of artists who keep the skills of the past alive in their unique creations. Some are high art, and some are humbly utilitarian, but all of them are made as they were over two centuries ago.
Each year, the CLA ( hosts their annual meeting in Lexington, Kentucky, and sponsors a huge show where member artists gather to exhibit and sell their work. Generous members also donate their art to be auctioned at the show to raise money to support the organization.
Selecting my favorite pieces from this year’s auction, I used my historical imagination to place them into a period-correct setting. My chosen context was the American Revolution, and specifically the Battle of Oriskany. Fought in the early stages of what history recalls as the Saratoga Campaign, Oriskany saw the most savage fighting of the war and the highest percentage of patriot losses.

Battle of Oriskany, by John Reuben Chapin, 1857. This engraving depicts the savage hand-to-hand combat in the woods as Loyalist forces and their Native American allies repeatedly stormed the surrounded Patriot militia and their Oneida tribal allies in the forest.
It was hard to look at this bloodbath as anything other than a disaster, but when the decisions and deeds of men and the acts of God were all weighed in the scales of history, it became clear that without Oriskany there probably would not have been a patriot upset victory at Saratoga to impress King Louis XVI of France.
It convinced him to ally his powerful nation with the American cause, and with no Franco-American alliance, we’d probably all be drinking warm beer and singing “God Save the Queen” at sports games.

THE BATTLE OF Oriskany was fought in New York’s Mohawk Valley, whose settlers were largely of German and Dutch ethnicity. Their collective memory shared no love of their own recent monarchs, and not considering themselves Englishmen, they had no ancestral loyalty to the English crown. They sided heavily with the cause of the American patriots and they drove out their Loyalist, or Tory, neighbors.
The Tories took refuge in Canada, organized their own Loyalist military units and schemed to convince the tribes of the powerful Iroquois Confederation to maintain their allegiance to Britain. Ultimately, only the Oneida sided with the colonies.
The first two years of rebellion against British rule were tumultuous if not disheartening for New York patriots. The invasion of Canada was a disastrous failure that precipitated a massive British counterattack only narrowly derailed by a miracle naval delaying action on the Great Lakes and the arrival of winter. Warm weather in 1777 brought a renewed and more sophisticated British invasion orchestrated by General John Burgoyne with the strategic objective of isolating New England (a hotbed of rebellion) from the other colonies by controlling the Hudson River.

New York was a strategic resource for the Patriot cause and British General Burgoyne was determined to sever it from the New England colonies by controlling the Hudson River from Canada to Albany. He sent a secondary force to attack the Mohawk Valley from the west to force the Patriots to split their forces between two fronts. Today’s Syracuse sits where Onondaga appears on the map. (GUY JOHNSON)
To do that, Burgoyne needed to control all the forts overlooking it, from the Canadian border to Albany. He committed most of his forces to a southward invasion along the Hudson supported by a secondary invasion into the Mohawk Valley from the west. Facing a two-pronged attack, the rebels would have to split their forces. For most of the summer, it looked like Burgoyne’s plans were working perfectly. Fort Ticonderoga was captured (without a fight) on July 5, and his western invasion force, consisting mostly of Loyalist volunteer units heavily supported by Mohawk, Seneca and Cayuga allies, surrounded and laid siege to Continental Army forces at Fort Stanwix on August 3.

Fort Stanwix guarded the strategic portage between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek. At that spot, a boat traveling on the Mohawk River from Albany could be easily carried overland (up to 6 miles) and put down in Wood Creek to make its way by water 1,500 miles through the Great Lakes into Canada and arrive on the eastern seaboard of the continent. Of course it worked the other way too, which is why the patriots couldn’t afford to lose Fort Stanwix. Their problem, as Burgoyne had predicted, was that they didn’t have enough Continental Army troops to fight off both prongs of the British attack. Out of necessity, a great many military missions fell upon the local militia.
On July 17, 1777, Tryon County Militia commander Brigadier General Nicholas Herkimer ordered the numerous local Committees of Safety to call to arms all men still available to defend against the western invasion. On August 4, they began a 50-mile march to Fort Stanwix to break through the British siege lines with supplies for the fort garrison. My narrative begins on August 6, when the patriot force was 8 miles from the fort.

In the cool of the morning, Harmen van der Berg marched along single-file near the end of Colonel Jacob Klock’s 2nd Regiment of the Tryon County Militia. In front of him were 150 of his neighbors, relatives and friends, and a score of Oneida warriors. Marching behind him were his brothers-in-law Carl and Johan Bauer, their sons Franz, Christian and Michael, and then around 40 more white settlers and perhaps a dozen Indians.
In front of the 2nd Regiment, at the head of the column, were another 200 militiamen of the 1st Regiment under Colonel Ebenezer Cox and about 30 more Oneida including Chief Thomas Spencer and his brother. Behind the 2nd Regiment marched the officers and men of the 4th Regiment, with the 3rd Regiment and 15 wagonloads of supplies at the rear of the column.
Deploying a force of this size meant virtually stripping their communities of arms and men aged 16 to 60. Harmen, like many other white settlers, feared they were leaving home and hearth defenseless, but some, like Harmen’s three teenage nephews, were in high spirits to run the scheming traitor Tories and their Indian proxies out for good.
In total, 800 militia and maybe 100 Oneida Indians made up their For 2 miles, the column threaded its way through the forest on the untended military road that looked more like a path. Abruptly, it sloped steeply downward, descended 50 feet to the bottom of a ravine, then leveled off in a boggy flat where cut logs formed a corduroy road running over a small creek. It was shady here. The high ground behind them now blocked the shafts of sun that previously filtered down on them through the dense maple, birch and beech forest.
Recognizing the landmarks, Harmen knew that even at a leisurely walk, they were less than two hours from the fort. It seemed strange they had yet to encounter any enemy pickets guarding the most practical route of attack. As his regiment’s advance again moved them into the patchwork of light breaking through the canopy of branches, Harmen was momentarily terrified by the glint of sunlight off bright iron in the forest only 30 paces to his left. Within a step, he recovered from the hair-raising rush of the shock. “Our flank guard,” he concluded. The underbrush was thick and seemingly unbroken here and he was glad Corporal Schmidt hadn’t detailed him to the exhausting task of screening the column’s flanks. When he turned his eyes forward again, there was the devil himself, Herr Schmidt, standing on the left side of the road looking up and down the column with his usual scowl.

Fort Stanwix on the eve of the siege was a substantial position that controlled access to the Mohawk River, the water route to Albany. The Patriots could not let it fall. (GUY JOHNSON)
Before Harmen’s eyes, the corporal collapsed to the ground simultaneous to the boom of a firelock from the woods to his left. The shot was followed almost instantly by another, and another, and then scores more all along the column in a ragged volley that felled several Tryon County men in the span of a single step. Harmen saw at least eight men ahead of him struck by balls, and within seconds, that many more fell again under the concentrated fire from trees all along the left side of the path.
Parallel to the gunfire, the forest path erupted with the voices of men. The painful cries and screams of the wounded were overlapped by guttural shouts, shrill shrieks and calls to “Gott im Himmel!” of apparently unharmed men surprised and in mortal terror. Men froze up, halting the column in the deadly fusillade. Some militiamen instinctively fired back into the now smoky forest where the powder flashes first appeared. Others crouched on the road attempting to use the heavy underbrush for concealment. A few rushed to aid the injured. Indian war whoops joined the rising din and the dark silhouettes of barely clothed men with feathered heads appeared standing among the cover of the trees, backlit against the white smoke as they stood charging their guns and ramming home their next ball.
Harmen did not freeze. In one fluid motion, he spun in place to face the ambush while cocking, shouldering, sighting down his longrifle’s barrel at the center of a faceless shadow’s chest, squeezing off a shot, and lowering the rifle again to finish his turn facing the rear of the column. Before he refocused his attention to the urgent concerns behind him, he saw his shadow man immediately draw in his limbs like a frightened turtle, become amorphous and begin to fall away into the smoke.
The situation Harmen found behind was worse. Another dozen men lay in heaps around the path and his brother in-law Carl sat on the ground, swearing most profanely and clutching his belly. Carl drew up his knees, blood rapidly staining the midriff of his shirt and leaking between his fingers. His son Franz knelt next to him trying to pull Carl’s hands away to check the wound. Their muskets lay on the ground. Johan and his two boys were still on their feet. Young Christian stood splayfooted on the road, fully upright but rocking backward under the recoil of his musket fired wildly towards the woods. His eyes were closed.
Johan and brother Michael were in a half-crouch, their weapons shouldered and carefully taking aim. They too had spotted the silhouetted Indians and squeezed off their shots before dropping to their knees to reload. Harmen knelt too, but not to reload. Instead he jerked Johan’s shoulder to get his attention. The man’s head whipped around to look at Harmen. There was fear in Johan’s face, but not panic.

“Make for those trees, Johan!” Harmen yelled to be heard over the cacophony of battle, pointing to the right side of the path that as yet appeared quiet. “They’ll slaughter us here.” Then Harmen turned toward Carl, who sat just behind them, and locked his arm through the wounded man’s. Seeing this, Franz perceived the intent and did the same, but before they stood, Harmen pointed the muzzle of his rifle at the two muskets lying on the ground. Franz’s musket was at his feet but his father’s had landed yards behind them when he fell wounded.
As Franz unlocked his left arm from his father’s to stretch out on his hands and knees to reach the musket, the thunder of a massed volley resounded up the path from the head of the column, followed almost immediately by war whoops from what Harmen guessed to be scores of attacking Indians. To him, it was the sound of disaster. When faced with an enemy armed with guns, it was common for the Indians to overrun them while they reloaded. A more urgent concern for Harmen was the steady fire from their left flank pouring into the path since the ambush was sprung.

THEY WERE A minute into the fight before the militia officers, sergeants and corporals could be heard shouting orders to rally their men. Harmen glanced behind them and saw his lieutenant briefly while Franz retrieved his father’s musket.
The officer was standing courageously with his sword held high calling to the men to form a line when a ball tore through his chest. He stood coughing up blood for a moment, dropped his sword, fell to his knees and then over sideways into the brush. Most of the militia were crouching along the path to conceal themselves from the enemy.
Harmen realized this would be their undoing. Lacking standing targets, the Indians fired low into the concealing bushes and undergrowth. The lowest shots got swallowed up in the wet ground. The ones aimed a little higher ricocheted off the path, sometimes wounding men, or re-wounding the supine injured. Blowing bits of leaf and branch onto the path, the deadliest shots cut up the brush at just the right height to hit an unlucky crouching man in the body or head.
This is exactly what happened to Michael as he ducked again to reload. The ball hit him in the crown of his broad-brimmed hat and came out the back of his neck. Michael was dead before his body met the path. In God’s mercy, neither his brother, cousin or father saw Michael killed, despite being within a stride of him.
Johan and Christian were shooting and Franz was taking up his wounded father’s arm with his left arm and struggling to clamp a pair of 9-pound muskets against his side with his right.
As Harmen and Franz rose to a bent-kneed crouch and began to force their way through the underbrush, Harmen finally saw that their column was under attack from both flanks. The right side of the path, especially toward the front of their regiment, hung heavy with smoke, penetrated by muzzle flashes and Indian warriors rushing out to attack the militia with tomahawks, knives and clubs. Suddenly, a trio of shots boomed from the woods just to their left and balls clipped the brush around them.

Twenty yards ahead, at the start of the forest’s large trees, he glimpsed a Seneca warrior nearly concealed by a large maple trunk raising his ramrod to reload. Harmen dived, taking Carl and Franz to ground with him. Mostly hidden in the brush and scrub trees, Harmen reached over for the muskets in Franz’s arms. The boy handed him one silently. Harmen cocked it and raised his head above the leafy branches to aim, but his target was gone.

Instead, a handful of Oneida allies were rushing the woods with muskets and tomahawks. One was felled by a ball but the others continued their charge, screaming fiercely. They were steps away from the trees when a white man in a green military coat exposed himself to fire a rifle at them. Harmen aimed and shot, hitting him squarely in the body and causing him to spin and fall backward into the trees. The Oneida either didn’t notice or didn’t care. They hurled themselves on the enemy hidden in the woods with a merciless fury.
Harmen ducked down again, handed the empty musket back to Franz and quickly reloaded his rifle. Their circumstances called for speed more than accuracy, so he poured powder in the barrel directly from his horn and didn’t waste time patching his ball. He put an extra ball in his cheek for his following shot. Franz reloaded the musket with unsteady hands. Daring a peek at the woodline, Harmen guessed the Oneida warriors had carried the immediate fight, for the Indians were gesturing with their hands and calling to their comrades and Harmen to follow them into the forest.
Now with some cover in the trees, Harmen turned his attention back to the path to shoot at the Indians when they exposed themselves, and Franz was able to tend to his father’s injury. Rather than mortally penetrating him front to back, the shot had gouged a half-inch-deep bloody channel six inches long and nearly a finger’s width across the front of Carl’s belly. It was painful, but survivable. Carl recovered his sensibilities enough to remove his shirt and help cut it into bandages, instructing Franz how to bind the wound.

SECONDS SEEMED LIKE minutes, and minutes hours, as the ambush turned into a series of brutal hand-to-hand personal combats with groups of Cayuga and Seneca Indians seasoned with a smattering of Tories attacking the patriot militia and their Oneida allies. Harmen heard fighting in the forest behind him too, both directly to his rear and to the right. Many Oneida had already fought their way into these woods and were driving back the left wing of the ambush and rallying their warriors to this spot.
In the thick of the fray along the path, Harmen spotted two mounted Indians, the lead rider armed with a rifle and the one behind with a brace of pistols. They boldly charged some Cayuga warriors who infiltrated the brush intent on running down a withdrawing militiaman. The mounted Indians shot down two of the Cayuga, and the third disappeared in the brush. The militiaman reached the woodline as the mounted Indians calmly reloaded on their walking horses. He recognized the lead rider as Hanyery, a very prosperous Oneida farmer and war chief from Oriska, and the pistol-wielder behind him was his wife!

Harmen wondered how the men from the 1st, 4th and 3rd Regiments had come through the initial minutes of the ambush. On and around the part of the path he could see, the 2nd Regiment was scattered, with no apparent command. When an individual militiaman fired, the Indians often raced out to club, stab and chop him down while he reloaded. Then they grabbed up the victim’s gun and horn to continue their attack. Between his quickly aimed shots at the Cayuga, who were no farther than 50 yards away, Harmen reloaded with his back protected by the trunk of a large maple and called out as loudly as he could for Johan and Christian to come to him. They did not respond. When loading his 10th round, or perhaps his 25th, he saw their commander, General Herkimer, wounded in the leg and unable to walk, being carried by two militiamen to some higher ground deeper in the woods.

Harmen found hope in the growing number of survivors from the small bands of militia making fighting withdrawals that were gradually gathering in the woods to form a defendable perimeter around General Herkimer. He prayed that Johan and Christian would appear among the militiamen falling into fighting positions to his left and right. Unable to check his fears that they might lay wounded and helpless on the march route, Harmen decided he must return to that killing ground to check for them. The Iroquois tribes that allied themselves with the British had a long record of torturing and murdering their captives.
Harmen was about to crawl forward when the volume of incoming gunfire suddenly increased and four Cayuga warriors emerged from the brush at a run on his left front. The warriors were so close, so quickly, that the maple tree trunk blocked the swing of Harmen’s rifle. As the forend bumped off the bark, he swore, and in the next moment sensed an attack on his right. His rifle was only halfway back to the target when an Indian kicked down the muzzle and raised his hooked war club high.

Harmen released the rifle and thrust up his arms to deflect a lethal blow to his head. He saw in the eyes of the warrior standing above him an expression of villainous glee, the round ball of the club, as big as a 12-pound solid shot, hovering over his feathered head momentarily and then beginning the deadly downstroke that would conclude on his face. A musket boomed and the Indian’s right cheekbone and eye exploded outward, leaving a gaping hole. Harmen could briefly see the inside of his skull before his remaining features were completely obscured by white smoke.

Harmen sprung to his feet, reached for his belt axe and dashed into the perimeter past Franz, who was just handing off his empty musket to his father and taking up a freshly loaded one. Two of the Cayuga were among the trees with them. The nearest was already furiously stabbing an old militiaman in the stomach with one hand and trying to wrench his musket away with the other. Harmen recognized the mortally wounded old man as Herr Mueller, a cooper from GermanFlats he had done business with.
Swinging with all his might, Harmen buried his axe at the base of the Indian’s neck. It sunk deep with a crunch and the collapsing body almost pulled it from his grip. As he yanked hard on the handle to free the blade from the bone, he glanced up in time to see a musket butt splintered over the head of another Cayuga lunging to stab him. That Indian staggered, and fell face first into the soil at his feet. If he was killed or just stunned by the terrific blow, Harmen never knew. Herr Mueller, lying on his side propped on one elbow, struggling against death on ground soaked red with his blood, shot the prostrate Indian through both lungs with his musket as his final earthly deed.

Left: The combined Tory, British-allied Indian and German Jaeger mercenary force set up a deadly three-sided (south, west and north) ambush, 6 miles east of Fort Stanwix, on the Patriots’ line of march. The trap was sprung too soon and most of the trailing 3rd Regiment escaped and retreated, leaving the 1st, 2nd and 4th Regiments to fend for themselves. Right: Within the first 30 minutes of battle, the surviving Patriots had formed a defensive perimeter in the forest. Surrounded, they held out against repeated, savage attacks for another five and a half hours.
THE SURPRISE ATTACK repulsed, Harmen rushed back to his self-assigned post to contest further Indian attempts to cross the path. In the relative calm, he became aware of the voice of General Herkimer, shouting orders and encouragement to them. Militia that Harmen did not know swiftly emerged from the woods inside the perimeter and took up fighting positions where Herr Mueller had died holding the line. They said they were from the 4th Regiment, had suffered heavily in the ambush, and were then encircled and attacked from the rear by Mohawks who cut them off from the 3rd Regiment at the tail of the column.
One of them had seen the Indians sweeping the road, killing and scalping some wounded and dragging others off as captives. What’s more, among the whites fighting with the Indians, they recognized some of their Tory former neighbors. Before they could say more, a sergeant Harmen didn’t recognize interrupted. Harmen, Franz and Carl, now partially mobile thanks to a half canteen of rum, were needed to reinforce the east side of the perimeter where the Seneca and green-coated Tories were expected to attack.

The short walk to the east flank revealed their defensive perimeter was perilously small, 200 yards long at most, and not as deep as it was long. But it was fairly packed with men on this side at least. If the remaining militia and Oneida were evenly spread, and most likely they were not, Harmen guessed there might be 400 of them, with plenty of big trees for cover.
They were still 50 feet from the perimeter, and Harmen was still calculating their odds, when the Seneca began their screaming war cries mixed with a flurry of gun shots and crashed into the east flank. The Indians charged through the front line, leaping over the stooping militiamen to attack them from behind. For the men on the line, there was time for a single shot. Caught in a deadly hand-to-hand brawl, they could not reload. Harmen and Franz, with Carl reloading, managed to get off five shots between them, thinning the Seneca warriors and shifting the odds in their favor, before they were forced to join the fray. Harmen handed his empty rifle to Carl and rushed into the melee, swinging his belt axe.

Bulk Ammo In-Stock
During the reckless close combat, Harmen chanced to see Franz smashing in a Seneca warrior’s skull with a captured war club. They seemed to be giving as good as they got, when the booming gunfire dramatically increased, hitting a number of Seneca from behind, and doing more to break their attack than the militia had thus far. With the Seneca surprised from behind, the militia got the upper hand and drove them off with musket fire. Harmen counted a dozen Seneca dead among the trees, including a war chief.
The fighting continued until the early afternoon, interrupted for an hour by a heavy rainstorm that the militia used to build up their defenses with fallen timber. Harmen checked his bag to discover he was low on ammunition. Of the three score .54-caliber bullets he’d cast for this misadventure, he had only 14 left, and barely enough powder in his horn for 10.
The attacks resumed when the rain stopped, but they didn’t break the defenders’ will to resist. Indians, Tory volunteers, Canadian militia and German Jaeger riflemen in their black cocked hats, arrayed against them and demonstrated repeatedly that they could fight their way into the militia’s defensive ring, but could not take it in the hand-to-hand close combat that followed. And then, in their last assault, it looked like they might.

AS THE LOYALIST forces pushed their way into the perimeter, Harmen sensed this would be a fight to the death. The Loyalists attacked with aggression and viciousness that equaled the worst Indian savagery. The remnants of the Tryon County Militia matched them in kind. Carl, wounded twice more, beat a man down with a stone before he was knocked to the ground. A Tory officer raised a pistol to shoot Carl in the head, but Franz would have none of it. He leapt on the green-coated gentleman’s back, spoiling his aim, knocking off his hat and dragging him to the ground. Someone else cut the gentleman’s throat from behind as he tried to get up.
Harmen was expecting his own demise when he heard the rumble of distant cannon fire as he lay facedown and bloody trying to shake a Seneca warrior off his back while wiggling out of the path of a Tory’s sword thrusts. He managed to twist the Tory’s boot and throw him off balance. When the man fell, Harmen rolled the Indian off. As he got on his feet, he saw the Indian running away. Harmen recovered his axe and rejoined the fight, but soon perceived the attack was faltering. The Indians were withdrawing and the remaining Tories, now outnumbered, were being killed at a rate they found disagreeable. Soon they too had quit the field. As quiet settled over their little battlefield, they could hear the sound of more cannon fire from the direction of Fort Stanwix.
The scouts sent out by General Herkimer reported no enemy in sight but on the road west back to Oriska, they found many dead and scalped 3rd Regiment men. The absence of the 3rd Regiment from the ravine battle led the scouts to conclude the unit fled the fight with the slowest being run down, killed and scalped by the Indians. Rather than risk running into an Indian force on the road, the general ordered they withdraw northward through the forest toward the Mohawk River. They gathered the wounded they could find and made good their escape, thanking God for His mercy. Unable to walk, Carl was carried out on litter improvised from two muskets and hunting shirts.
Unexpected joy came to Harmen, Franz and Carl on discovering Christian alive. It was tempered by heartbreaking news of his father Johan’s death holding off a group of Indians so Christian could escape. After ordering him to run, Johan unsheathed his old fighting knife and charged into the Indians, shouting damnations at them in German. Christian tearfully confirmed his father went down under a storm of tomahawk blows.

The urgency of their withdrawal and the need to help their wounded allowed no time to dwell on the day’s punishing events. It also forced them to leave their dead on the field. Harmen, his relations, and what was left of the Tryon County Militia made it back to their homes in the following days, but close to half of their force was killed, wounded or missing when roll was taken.
Anyone captured by the Indians had to be presumed murdered. They had fought bravely, if not as wisely as they could have, but that didn’t diminish the sting of having failed in their urgent mission to relieve the besieged fort, despite having paid such a painful price in lives. Harmen had lost two of his in-laws but felt himself blessed to be alive to hold his wife and baby. Many families lost all their men and it was all the harder to know their bodies lay in the open to be ravaged by beasts.

As the weeks passed, the Mohawk Valley got no respite from the ravages of war. Indians and Loyalists raided their settlements almost with impunity, looting and burning farms and villages and murdering families. A robust militia might have warded off those attacks. Most of the Continental Army troops in the region had their hands full with the British Army’s advance southward toward Albany.
Though the prospects for the patriot cause in New York looked increasingly grim, Harmen held to his faith in it. As days turned to weeks, with no report about a British capture of Fort Stanwix, his hope was nourished. Then, on August 24, news arrived that the siege was over and combined forces of the English crown that had invaded the western Mohawk Valley were in full retreat. For the larger patriot cause, this meant the Continental Army was now free to concentrate on stopping the British advancing from the north. For Harmen, it also meant a chance to properly bury his kin. Franz insisted on going too, even though it was a risky trek upriver.

THE TRIP TO the battlefield was an unspeakable horror. A vast open grave stinking of corruption, it was the stuff of nightmares. With perseverance, they succeeded in recovering the remains of Johan and Michael. As Harmen wrapped the remnants of their mortal coils, young Franz searched for, and found, his uncle Johan’s fighting knife. It was fashioned from a sword he used in the French and Indian War. Franz knew Christian would want it. Franz also found the fine pistol dropped by the Tory officer he’d fought and stuck it in his belt as a personal trophy.
When the job was done, and Harmen and Franz, Johan and Michael, were back at their canoe, they somehow found themselves rowing upstream. Nothing was said between them, but there was silent agreement that they should complete the journey they started on August 4 and see the fort so many had sacrificed so much for.
The fort was impressively refurbished since Harmen’s last visit in 1774, and above it flew what he assumed was the new American flag he had recently read about. Outside, General Benedict Arnold’s Continental Army relief force was encamped. Learning who they were, the sentries presented them to Fort Stanwix’s sergeant of the guard. The sergeant escorted them into the fort, where an officer questioned them briefly about their observations during their journey. After the interview, the sergeant led them over to the flagpole on their way out of the fort.

“I noticed you couldn’t take your eyes off the stars and stripes,” he said. “Would you like to see the one that flew overhead during the siege?” “That’s not it?” Franz asked in surprise.
“No, lad,” the sergeant replied. “That silk beauty is the new one General Arnold brought us.” Reaching inside his haversack, he withdrew a much smaller, rather crudely sewn twin of the flag on the pole. It was cut and burned in places from shot and shell, and he handled it reverently like a believer would handle Jesus’ burial shroud.
“This is the very one we made ourselves that waved over us in our time of peril. It helped us keep our courage. I just exchanged her for the new one this morn. But she’s special to me … special to a lot of us who were here. I think maybe she might be special to you too, so I’m showin’ ya.”
Franz and Harmen reached out to gently, respectfully touch the battle scars on the roughly sewn pieces of cloth that symbolized the new free nation they had fought for, and felt a bond with it.

Handgun Optics

With positives and negatives, deciding if a red dot sight is right for you boils down to your handgun’s mission.

Story and Photos by Nick Perna

So, in the form of a disclaimer, I am old. Fifty-one years old, to be exact. As a soldier and a cop, I’ve been making a living with a gun for nearly my entire adult life. I can say, with some degree of distinction, that I have carried just about every variety of AR/M-16 that has ever been used by the US military: M-16A1, M-16A2, M203, M4 and the AR-15 patrol rifle.
With age comes a certain amount of suspicion whenever a new product enters the market claiming to be able to do everything. As a point of reference, I have seen VCR tapes, Beta tapes, records, 8-tracks, cassette tapes, laser discs, compact discs, floppy discs and others come and go. I’ve learned to adopt a “wait and see” attitude whenever a new product presents itself.
In the firearms and tactics realm, I, despite my age, retain a relatively high degree of relevancy when it comes to the carry, use and operation of firearms. I’m a cop, a law enforcement firearms instructor, constant carrier of firearms while off duty, as well as a hunter. So I don’t base my opinions only on what I used to do. I base them on what I and others are using currently and what I think will work in the future.

Red dot optics on rifles have been the norm for the past 15 years, says author Nick Perna, but they are now gaining popularity on handguns like the Glock 45 pictured here.
ENTER RED DOT sights (RDS), or handgun optics. Not necessarily a new thing – competitive shooters have been using them for years – but they are definitely gaining mainstream acceptance with military, police, hunters and sport shooters. There is a large number of manufacturers who produce them, many of which are excellent. Most major handgun manufacturers now sell either aftermarket slides with RMR mounts already on them or you can purchase the handgun with an already modified slide.
In some cases, guns come with an already attached RDS. No longer does a person desiring an RMR need to send their handgun in for extensive modification.
Red dot optics on rifles have been the norm for at least the past 15 years, their mainstream acceptance brought on, in part, by successful applications in combat during the War on Terror. On the sporting front, especially during three-gun competitions, they are essential. Iron sights on rifles have been relegated to backup status, only to be used if an optic fails.

So, naturally, red dot applications should automatically extend to handguns as well, right? Well, yes and no. With every advantage generally comes a disadvantage, so it is important for the end user to weigh the pros and cons before making a tactical equipment decision.
The pros of RDSs are obvious. A well-trained shooter with a red dot sight, on any weapons platform, is generally going to be able to get off quicker, more accurate shots than a weapon with a sighting system that requires lining up two different elements (front sight and rear sight). This is especially true at longer distances with handguns, when “front sight focus” (using only your front sight to engage a target) doesn’t work as well. Red dot sights work the same close up and at acceptable distances. Put the red (or green) dot on the target or threat, and shoot.

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BUT THERE ARE cons as well. Training: Switching from traditional sights to red dots requires training. The first time I shot a handgun equipped with an RDS, I found it was different and I was not getting the shot placement I expected. With a little bit of practice, I was able to get good, consistent groups. Learning to quickly acquire the red dot and focusing on the target is the goal.

One bad habit I have observed with RDS users is checking their optic to make sure it’s on before an engagement. In a recent training exercise at work, we had officers engaging threat targets starting with their handgun in the holster. As a precursor to the engagement, officers are given the opportunity to check their weapon to ensure it is loaded by press checking it. With the officers who used RMRs, they all drew the weapon up to eye-level to ensure the red dot was on. In one instance an officer checked his RMR but didn’t make sure his handgun was loaded. He got a click instead of a bang when the target presented itself. These types of issues need to be addressed.

Mechanical failures: All machines can potentially fail at any time. For RDSs, this can mean a dead battery (although this is rare since most sights have extremely long battery lives) or the electronics can malfunction. RDS systems are usually backed up by iron sights so a battery/electronics malfunction doesn’t deadline the weapon. However, a brain trained to RDS shooting will have to adjust to using iron sights. Iron sights aren’t immune to breakage either but there are less things that can go wrong with them.
Cost: This is probably one of the biggest issues. RDSs can run from several hundred to several thousand dollars. The handgun either needs to be milled out by a gunsmith, a separate slide needs to be purchased that will accept RMRs, or an entirely new handgun needs to be purchased. Then there are the periphery purchases like holsters. For cops this can get expensive, as they need to purchase work holsters as well as concealed carry rigs.

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PROBABLY THE MOST important factor in deciding if an RDS is right for you is the mission your handgun is supposed to fulfill. For example, if you intend to mount one on your personal, concealed carry defense weapon, an RDS is probably a good option. In a rapidly developing situation where your life depends on speed and accuracy, the RDS can be a life-saver. There are drawbacks to consider, such as an RDS-equipped gun being slightly less concealable, but overall it’s probably the way to go.
Now consider that your primary weapon is a rifle, and you carry a handgun as a backup weapon. Maybe having an EMP (electromagnetic pulse) proof sighting system is the best option. One that doesn’t rely on batteries or electronics. It’s a backup, after all, designed to fill in for the primary weapon when it fails or runs out of ammo. So embrace the change, as it can make you a better operator, but always be aware of the limitations.