Budget Night Vision POV Camera

A while back on TFB Ted Colegrove posted up a mini-review of a Night Vision POV Camera setup. The camera is a cheap Chinese spy camera with a custom 3D printed holder that positions the small lens over the eyepiece of your night vision. The clip is designed to work with the ubiquitous PVS14. If you don’t want to spend big money, this might give you an idea of whats possible at the bootstrap level.

$55 POV Camera



photo by chadplanking2011



photo by chadplanking2011



photo by chadplanking2011

DIY pov camera by Irfan

I have dabbled with something similar. My friend Irfan helped me acquire a similar setup that he uses and he made his own lens holder. I found the pov camera to be lacking in image quality. Also, it was hindered by the fact that it is really designed as a wifi camera and requires an app to control and access the camera. The camera set up above seems simpler as it is just controlled by a small key fob remote control.

Here is a video sample that Ted posted up from this pov camera setup.

Quick down and dirty review of the “PVS-14 Active Night Vision Recording Unit” on eBay. (I believe the maker is on here? not sure.)

The unit itself from what I understand is 3D-Printed. It comes with a large battery, a small spy cam, 3 (at least mine did) 3D Printed mounts, a key chain clicker and a USB cable to charge it.

• It’s super flimsy and very reminiscent of the Gen1 FPRS.
• 3D printed mount falls off my optic (I have MOD3 Bravos) so I had to secure it on to the outside
• Wires looks to be soldered on very thinly, so BE CAREFUL pulling or pushing anything too much.
• Wires are not long enough to reach the back of my helmet so I had to figure out how to mount a battery pack closer
• Obstructs your eye a little

• It’s $55 so not a huge drop in the bucket compared to other ways of filming your night pew pews.
• Video recording system does work
• wireless trigger your night vision, I should put it on my gun or something, that would be cool
• Does 1080p, at 30fps

Overall: 7/10 not bad for the price and it works. Just wish it was a little more robust, see photos of what I did to make it a little more action ready. I’m sure it will look better under a helmet cover.

The pov camera setup is sold on ebay and you can check it out here.

If you are interested in getting night vision check out Richard L. article on buying NODS.


One benefit to this setup is that it is unobtrusive. The spy camera lens is small and even though it looks like it blocks the eyepiece, I can confirm that it blurs itself out being that close to your eye. If you are running bino dual tubes then the second night vision will overlap and you really would not notice it.The system is not that water proof and you have a tethered battery pack and camera brain which requires some management on your helmet.

TNVC NVG Adapter

TNVC has their own POV Camera setup that works with a prism from Wilcox and a GoPro. However this setup is not as compact nor as inexpensive. The GoPro prism mount costs $409.99 and that does not come with the GoPro. Another issue with this setup is the image is slightly compromised due to the compact prism by Wilcox.

DIY SmartPhone POV Mount

With the help of my friend Brian Miller, he made a 3D printed coupler so I could mount a prism to the back of my PVS14 and a attach my iPhone to the side. By using an iPhone I can zoom in to get the best image possible and I can adjust brightness/exposure. The only downside is now you have a phone on the side of your night vision.



smartphone POV mount 2.0



You can see the gray 3D printed couplers and the FDE colored airsoft corner sight.

Here is a video recorded from my iPhone pov camera setup while testing a red dot for aiming with night vision.

My first prototype just attached an airsoft corner shot prism mount to the back of the PVS14. This positioned the prism about 1/2 an inch from the eyepiece. Then the distance from the prism to the iPhone camera lens caused the camera to see less than what I could see. So even though I could see what I was aiming and shooting at, often it was cut off by the cropped image in the phone. So I had Brian Miller help me make a completely custom housing that positions the prism as close to the PVS14 eyepiece as possible.

Now I Can Show You what I’m looking at

You can certainly mount a phone to the back of the eyepiece and get a pretty good image. Here is a video I made to show how best to film night vision with a phone.

Before I had Brian help me with my prism setup I would mount the phone to the back of my PVS14 and wear it on my head. This would get me the best possible image through the PVS14 but I could not focus on the iPhone screen being that close to my face. So I would have to shoot vis lasers and aim with my right eye which defeats the purpose.

POV Cameras allow you to film hands-free what your night vision is seeing. However, there are compromises. Often the image suffers or you are hindered by bulky setups. My DIY prism setup is not perfect but it has given me the best image I can record while wearing the PVS14 and shooting.


CCI to Host Hunting and Shooting Sports Superstars at 2018 NRA Annual Meetings and Exhibits

CCI Ammunition invites attendees of the 2018 NRA  Meetings & Exhibits Show to the Vista Outdoor booth 7530, to meet online trick shooting superstar 22plinkster, plus legendary alligator hunters Troy and Jacob
Landry. The event runs May 3-6 in Dallas, Texas.

YouTube shooting sensation 22plinkster is a familiar face to fans around the world.  His incredible rimfire trick shots and other entertaining shooting demonstrations have to date drawn more than 66 million views. 22plinkster will appear in the CCI booth on Saturday, May 5, from 11 a.m. to noon.

From the hit series “Swamp People” on the History Channel, Cajuns Troy and Jacob Landry, bring a taste of the wild world of Louisiana alligator hunting to the CCI booth from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. on Saturday, May 5 and from 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. on Sunday, May 6.

Booth 7530 will also highlight all the latest CCI Ammunition. Attendees are encouraged to stop by throughout the show to learn more about these exciting new technologies and the advantages of choosing CCI Ammunition.

Franklin Armory Awarded Multiple Trigger Patents

On April 24th, 2018, the US Patent and Trademark Office awarded two patents to Franklin Armory® for their innovative Binary Firing System™. Patent numbers 9,952,012 and 9,952,013 demonstrated a total of 62 claims awarded to Franklin Armory® for their unique design! While the various claims cover a vast array of pull-release technology, the chief claims include safety technology to allow discounting of the release round by simply modulating the selector, as well as a lock-out provision to prevent switching to binary mode after the trigger has been depressed and held back in semiautomatic mode. Other claims featured parallel disconnectors controlled by a single, multi-cam selector as well as the ability to select from safe, to semiautomatic, to binary mode through the use of a single selector.

Jay Jacobson, President of Franklin Armory, stated that:

Our initial presentation to the market was that the BFS™ is ‘selectable and safe.’ We have always strongly believed that these safety and convenience features are what distinguish our products in the marketplace, and now the US Patent Office has concurred.

These are the first of many pending patents to be awarded to Franklin Armory® for Binary trigger technologies. Well before the introduction of the BFSIII™ in 2015 more patents were filed to cover the new design and new features. The BFSIII™ allows for ease of installation and multiple platform compatibility. Franklin Armory® has already released 5+ triggers using their patented technologies with more to come.

The driving force behind this company’s success is our ability to aggressively brainstorm new unique ideas, pursue them, and protect them. Having two more patents granted is not only a well-received recognition for our ingenuity but a motivator to keep that drawing board dripping in ink and new ideas flowing off the pages.” Says Ryan Fellows Chief of Design for Franklin Armory®

To see this patented technology for yourself come to the NRA Annual Meeting Booth 4105.

Press release content provided by Franklin Armory.

US Navy & Air Force Order the XM18 Compact MHS

The US Navy and Air Force have confirmed their adoption of the compact variant of the US Army’s new pistol, the Modular Handgun System.

Last month the US Navy confirmed the procurement of 60,000 XM18 MHS pistols, the compact variant of the SIG pistol. The Navy will replace its Beretta M9s and SIG Sauer M11 pistols with the new sidearm. Navy spokesman Ben Anderson confirmed to Military.com that the “money has been allocated for contracting this year, with delivery to the Navy to commence in FY19.”

At the same time the US Air Force has also confirmed that it will adopt the XM17 / XM18 Modular Handgun System to replace its existing inventory of ageing Beretta M9 pistols. An Air Force spokesperson, Laura McAndrews explained that the Air Force has “started the procurement process and plan to buy approximately 130,000 weapons.”

Sig m18

SIG Sauer Compact M18 (SIG Sauer)

Both the Navy and the Air Force were joint partners in the Army’s Modular Handgun System Program and had input into the evaluations. McAndrews explained that “as a joint partner in this endeavor, we determined the [X]M18 MHS, the compact version, will best meet the Air Force mission needs, and selected it as the standard handgun for all Air Force users.”

This means that both services will be procuring the M18 compact variant of the Modular Handgun System rather than the Army’s full size M17. The M18 has a shorter slide and a 3.9” or 9.9 cm long barrel and, like the M17 can feed from 17-round standard magazines or 21-round extended magazines.

The last service to confirm its adoption of the Modular Handgun System was the USMC who recent confirmed that they have budgeted over $6 million for 35,000 Modular Handgun System pistols. The Marine Corps, however, have not yet confirmed if they, like the Navy and Air Force will prefer the smaller, more compact M18.

Sources: 1 2 

Cody Firearms Museum’s Launches Museum Renovation Funding Portal

The Cody Firearms Museum, part of The Buffalo Bill Centre of the West, located in Cody, Wyoming, is about to undergo a major overhaul. With some exhibits already deinstalled the newly renovated museum is set to reopen in 2019.

The museum holds an astounding collection of firearms and firearms related ephemera with around 3,000 firearms on display. But the collection holds over double this and the renovation hopes to enable the display of over 1,500 more guns. The museum took on the collection of Winchester Arms Museum in the 1970s before officially becoming the Cody Firearms Museum in 1991. The collection also holds records from a number of manufacturers including Marlin, LC Smith and Ithaca.

The museum was last layed out in the 1990s and the planned renovation will bring the museum’s displays into the 21st century. The ambitious project is expected to cost as much as $10 million.

The museum has already secured a number of grants and donations from the National Endowment for the Humanities Sustaining Cultural Heritage Collections fund, a Museums of America grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and a private donation from Timney Triggers. But completely redesigning and renovating a museum is a costly business and the museum has decided to launch a funding portal to allow people to donate towards the project.

The Cody Firearms Museum are now inviting the public to help make their ambitious reimagining of the museum a reality. The new donation portal page explains that “a project of this scope requires donors at all giving levels.” Check out the page here. You can you can find out more about the Cody Firearms Museum’s renovation here.  

Having recently visited the museum, seen the impressive collection and heard about the renovation plans myself, I can confirm that the project is well worth supporting!

POTD: 3-D Printed Pistol Grips with Craftsman Curb Appeal

A TFB reader who hails from Denver, Colorado recently sent us several pictures of their 3-D printed pistol grips. Sounds mundane and boring, right?… Until you see the grips! These are not some primitive, Play-Doh looking grips that could have come from a middle-school science project.

I like to believe I am well-versed in firearms, but I am not well-versed in 3-D printer technology, components or functionality. I will leave that explanation to Jody Garrett, the artist, to explain:

The grips are digitally sculpted, SLA 3d printed, molded and then cold cast with performance resin and metal powder.

The complete project that Jody Garrett has dove into for pistol grips can be seen here.

Pistol Grips

Ruger SR1911 outfitted with 3-D Printed Grips custom from Jody Garrett

Pistol Grips

Ruger SR1911 with a 3-D Printed Brass and Blue Patina Finish Pistol Grip with a Wolf Design

Pistol Grips

Ruger SR1911 with 3-D Printed Brass and Blue Patina Finish Pistol Grip with a Wolf Design – Complete Set

Pistol Grips

Bronze, Aluminum and Mineral Filled beginnings of the 3-D Printed Brass and Blue Patina Finish Pistol Grips with a Wolf Design

Pistol Grips

Computer Generated Image of Future 3-D Printed Pistol Grip with a Wolf Design

Pistol Grips

Early Sketch Drawing of the 3-D Printed Pistol Grip with a Wolf Design

These elaborate 1911 grips are not the only grips produced by Jody Garrett though. Like a great infomercial…

“But wait! There’s more!”

Pistol Grips

Complete Collection of 3-D Printed Grips for a Model 1911, Ruger Single-Six and potentially a Ruger MK I, II or III

Pistol Grips

Not quite finished grip for a Ruger MK I, II or III

Pistol Grips

Design Sketch for a set of Ruger Single-Six Grips

Pistol Grips

Computer Generated Image for a set of Ruger Single-Six Pistol Grips

All in all, a pretty impressive collection of 3-D printed grips for several common firearm models.

And as always, we welcome all of our readers to send us suggestions for our POTD (Picture-of-the-Day) segment!

NEW: Faxon Firearms Match Series 6.5 Creedmoor RPR Barrel with 5R Rifling

Faxon Firearms has always been a strong aftermarket parts manufacturer for the AR-15 platform. Moreover, people seek them out for their extraordinarily light components that still maintain impressive accuracy. More recently they have begun to add in pistol parts to their portfolio and once again they are diving into another category: bolt-action rifles!

They are now producing barrels for the Ruger Precision Rifle (RPR) chambered in 6.5 Creedmoor.

They are definitely excited to be doing so and had these words to express and elaborate on this first for their company:

Faxon Firearms is proud to introduce our first entry into the bolt action rifle market with our Match Series RPR (Ruger Precision Rifle) replacement barrels!

The Faxon RPR replacement barrels feature a hybrid between the Heavy Palma and MTU profiles with the addition of Faxon’s standard Heavy Fluting for maximizing rigidity while removing weight. Faxon’s pre-fit RPR barrels are manufactured out of 416R stainless steel and finished with a Salt Bath Nitride treatment for optimal longevity and corrosion resistance. This 24″ Faxon RPR barrel is chambered in 6.5″ Creedmoor, features a 1/8 twist, has a recessed 11 degree target crown, and is threaded in the standard 5/8×24 thread pitch.

Faxon RPR barrels are pre-fit and can easily be changed with the use of Ruger’s barrel nut design.


An essential break-down of the rest of the craftsmanship poured into this barrel can be read below as well.

  • Barrel Material: 416R Stainless
  • Barrel Type: 5R Button Rifled, Lapped
  • Caliber: 6.5 Creedmoor
  • Twist Rate: 1 in 8″
  • Length: 24″
  • Profile: Fluted Heavy Palma
  • Inside & Outside Finish: Nitride
  • Muzzle Thread: 5/8-24 TPI
  • Weight: 4 Lbs.
  • Magnetic Particle Inspected
  • Recessed 11° Target Crown

These are currently available on their website and list for $429. Understanding the quality and care to the little details that Faxon is known for bringing to the table, these should be very serviceable and accurate barrels.

Do you own any of their components for other firearms? Would you purchase one of these barrels for your RPR?

Sound off in the comments and let us know your thoughts.

White Oak Armament’s Lens Reducer

White Oak Armament introduces is Lens Reducer, designed in response to requests from service rifle shooters. One of the obstacles to overcome when the CMP changed service rifle rules, to allow optics, was the fact that all the low powered scopes which met the 4.5 power limit were designed for short range shooting and had parallax factory-set at a very short range. This short parallax setting resulted in big groups and lost points at 300 and 600 yards.

To address this problem shooters came up with all types of solutions. Everything from drilling holes in lens caps to putting a piece of tape with a hole in it over the lens. These solutions helped, but they had problems. The biggest of which was crossfire problems due to the small field of view. Something better was needed and the White Oak Lens Reducer is the result.

The chamfered hole in the center gives a ghost ring in the center of the field of view, while the clear or tinted material allows the full field of view of the scope to be utilized to keep an eye on conditions or your target number. The hole in the center also means you are not looking through an additional lens. Precision machined parts ensure the hole is precisely located in the center of the scopes field of view.

Over time scopes became available with the correct power and parallax setting for across the course service rifle shooting. Even with these scopes, shooters were seeing improvements in group size and more uniform group placement with the lens reducers. These improvements are more than what can be simply explained by parallax error. One reason could have more to do with a mental focus than it does an optical focus. When shooting 600 yards with a 4.5 x scope, the target only occupies a very small part of the shooter’s field of view.

The White Oak Lens Reducer is available in two models. The Leupold model will fit most current Leupold scopes, while the March reducer will fit all models of March scopes. Each comes with interchangeable clear and tinted lenses.

The White Oak Lens Reducer is available in two models. The Leupold model will fit most current Leupold scopes, while the March reducer will fit all models of March scopes. Each comes with interchangeable clear and tinted lenses.

It could be that the reducer helps keep your mental focus where it needs to be. It may also be that the reducer helps the shooter maintain a uniform head position and as a result a more consistent position from shot to shot which in itself will shrink groups and improve shot to shot consistency.

Although designed for the service rifle competitor, the Lens Reducer can be used to good effect in many other situations. When engaging targets at various distances with a scope that does not have parallax adjustment, or when time does not allow adjustment for each target. Or when shooting from improvised field positions where you may not always have a proper cheek weld to ensure correct head position. Its benefits are certainly not limited to the service rifle shooter.

The White Oak Lens Reducer is available in two models. The Leupold model will fit most current Leupold scopes, while the March reducer will fit all models of March scopes. Each comes with interchangeable clear and tinted lenses.

The introductory price of $62.50 is expected to run until April 30, 2018. Visit White Oak Armament’s website for more information.

Press release content provided by White Oak Armament.

Collector Grade Publications Founder R. Blake Stevens Passes Away

If you have a passion for the history of firearms or collecting old guns then you will probably be familiar with Collector Grade Publications, a publishing house which has been publishing excellent, well researched and curated books for nearly 40 years. I’m saddened to say the man behind Collector Grade, R. Blake Stevens, has passed away, aged 80.

Collector Grade, founded in 1979, has published dozens of important books covering important firearms such as the FAL and M16 as well as the Luger, the MP40, M1 Carbine, Maxim Gun and the BAR. While Blake was himself an accomplished writer, researcher, and historian – responsible for wonderfully in-depth books on the FAL, High Power, the FN49 and roller locking rifles, he was also the driving force and editor of dozens of other books published by Collector Grade.

Blake’s obituary, written by his family and shared on the MacCoubrey funeral home website, reads:

Robert Blake Stevens
October 16, 1938 – April 22, 2018

“They always will believe a lie

Who see with, not through, the eye”

In his own words:

“Robert ‘Blake’ Stevens was born in Toronto on October 16th, 1938 the eldest of the three children of the late Thomas Herbert Stevens and Beatrice Ena Stevens (née Lake). Blake is survived by his loving wife and business partner Susan Fraser, daughter Elizabeth, grandson Elijah, sister Brenda van Lier (Winston), and sister-in-law Gail Stevens, widow of his late brother Clyde. Life never really made much sense for Blake until he was in his thirties, when it all came together during and after his first experience with LSD. Suddenly the world was divided into two groups of people: the few who understand the above edited quote from William Blake (1757-1827), and the many who do not. A 10-year career in systems analysis and computer programming no longer holding any appeal, Blake left the corporate world and studied for two years at the New School of Art, all the while maintaining his lifelong passion for music and high-fidelity sound. In 1979 Blake founded the small but now world-renowned company Collector Grade Publications, where for a period of nearly forty years he edited and produced a series of over sixty critically-acclaimed books on modern small arms, twelve of which he wrote or co-authored himself. He felt that this endeavor was well in keeping with the adage attributed to the Buddha, who is purported to have said that one has to learn how to make their living with their left foot if they are ever going to get anywhere with their head. While death is the ultimate demarcation, requiring the end of existence in this beautiful and beguiling world, it may lead to the opportunity for Blake’s soul to be reborn into another world of the same order as itself, which would be reward indeed for faithfully enduring the last ordeals in his struggle with cancer.”

Cremation has already taken place. A date to honour Blake will be forthcoming in the next months. Condolences may be made online at www.MacCoubrey.com, and if so wished, a donation in Blake’s name to the Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation.

Sadly, I never had the pleasure of physically meeting Blake but we exchanged emails regularly for a number of years and I greatly enjoyed his insight and generosity with his time and knowledge. He was even kind enough to grant me an interview for my website, Historical Firearms. If you’d like to learn more about Blake and his work you can find my interview here and an earlier 2013 interview with Small Arms Review here.

Through Collector Grade, Blake achieved a great deal and provided an unparalleled medium to propagate historic firearms knowledge. His death is a real loss to not just those lucky enough to know him but the firearms research community as a whole. I sincerely hope that Collector Grade will continue to publish their fantastic books in his memory. Rest in peace Blake.

LEAKED: USMC Test Calls M27, M38 DMR Into Question

On the heels of the USMC’s effort to field 15,000 more Heckler & Koch M27 Infantry Automatic Rifles, as well as the M38 Designated Marksman Rifle variant, The Firearm Blog has received a copy of a 2016 report intended to justify procurement of accessories and additional M27s to fill a need for a special purpose rifle (SPR). The report documents a test conducted at Quantico, Virginia, by the Product Manager, Infantry Weapons Product Management Office (PdM IW). 9 M27 IARs were tested, each firing 2700 rounds over the course of the test. Notably, the Lead Engineer and Assistant Product Manager for this test was the recently-retired Salvatore Fanelli, who worked at Heckler & Koch in the early-mid 2000s.

Despite the document’s overall upbeat tone, it does not present a picture of a system “ready to field”. The optic chosen for the test was the Leupold Mark 4 2.5-8x36mm variable power scope, part number 60150, one mounted to all 9 weapons via a LaRue mount. This particular optic is a strange choice, being a virtual antique by today’s standards (the optics themselves are leftovers from the Mk. 12 SPR program of the early 2000s), and having a mix of mil reticle and MOA adjustments. This latter feature means that an operator cannot make adjustments in the same increments as what is shown on the reticle. For a simple concept validation test this would not be a problem. However the intent, as stated in the document, was to test the:

feasibility and practicality of using the M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle (IAR) as a
Special Purpose Rifle (SPR) to fulfill an Urgent Statement of Need.

[emphasis mine]

Reportedly, the reason for choosing this optic (the 3-9 version of which is slated for use with the M38 which descended from this test) was simply that they existed in inventory at the USMC logistics base in Albany, left over from 2000s-era Mk. 12 SPRs. This raises the question of exactly what logistical pipeline the M38 will depend on for replacements. If the Leupold scope cannot be procured somehow, then the M38 as a system is unsustainable at the start.

The appendices of the document indicate that the rifle system is far from optimally reliable when equipped with the tester-preferred KAC sound suppressor. Guns in the “Bravo” test group, all of which were equipped with that suppressor, experienced bolt over base malfunctions indicating an extremely high cyclic rate and marginal weapon reliability in the suppressed configuration. The test was conducted in winter, when temperatures were low, and used Mk. 262 ammunition, a round well-regarded for its consistency and suitability with 5.56mm weapons. However, USMC forces abroad are now using the M855A1 EPR round, which typically produces much higher cyclic rates than Mk. 262. Despite the obvious cyclic rate issues when suppressed, the equipment used to measure cyclic rate reportedly malfunctioned, and no further mention of cyclic rate issues was made until the appendix.

Coupled with that, point of impact shifts of up to 5 MOA between the suppressed and unsuppressed configurations raise the question of whether the weapon is suitable for suppression at all: Cyclic rate and reliability are marginal at best when suppressed with the KAC unit, precluding an “always suppressed” doctrine to fix the POI shift issues. At the same time, the test manager concludes that “POI shift is not as important as it once was”, an unusual statement when concerning a system that is intended for precision use against point targets while either suppressed or unsuppressed.

In brief, the weapon system demonstrated in this test does not seem to be suitable for issue in that configuration. Unfortunately, the M27 and M38 platforms as they currently stand are fixed specification items. Engineering change proposals (ECPs) to the weapon itself would be necessary to make it suitable for use in this role with the KAC suppressor, or a greatly improved and much more durable model of the OSS suppressor used instead. This presents an issue for the M38 DMR program, as the original intent was to use off-the-shelf components along with the in-inventory M27 rifle to produce a designated marksman’s rifle or special purpose rifle to fill an urgent USMC need. ECPs or new suppressor designs potentially change the M38 program from a non-developmental effort, into a new developmental program which could potentially deviate the M38 specification away from the current issue M27.

There is another layer to uncover here, as well. Looking through the 4 November 2016 Infantry Training & Readiness Manual, we see something a little odd:

Pictured: Oddly specific.

The Infantry Training & Readiness manual lists the M27 (not M38) “Designated Marksman rifle”, as well as the “Leopold (sic) Mark IV 3X-9X scope”. No other T&R listing is this specific, and no other lists a manufacturer, as that would imply weapons must be procured from that vendor. This raises the question of whether a change to the T&R Manual was made in an attempt to “backdoor” the M27 with the Mark 4 scope as a designated marksman rifle system, eventually leading to the M38. To say this would be out of the ordinary is an understatement; it’s virtually the opposite of how the process is intended to work.

Disclosure: I am now an employee of Knight’s Enterprises, LLC. Any statements made in this or any other article are my own and not promoted by or associated with Knight’s Enterprises, Knight’s Armament, or any affiliate company. Despite my relationship with Knight’s, I try to maintain an objective perspective on small arms development. However, it is impossible to eliminate bias completely, therefore any analysis made in this article should be taken with that fact in mind.