Institutional Inertia – Never Accept Average

How law enforcement snipers can avoid the dreaded ‘Institutional Inertia’ that often slows progress at agencies.

As I travel around the nation providing instruction to various law enforcement agencies, I see a consistent trend that greatly inhibits growth and development in the areas of training and equipment.
That trend is a lack of time, money and resources related to sustainment training, and identifying advancements in equipment and tactics.
A man far wiser than I once told me that the three critical assets needed to accomplish tasks were time, money and resources. He continued on by saying that if you’ve got all three at your disposal, tasks get completed quickly and, for the most part, effectively.
However, if you’re lacking in one, then you’d better have
a lot of the other two to make up for the deficiency. That makes sense, but what happens when you don’t have a whole lot of any of the three? This is what most agencies are up against, and it’s an uphill battle.

As a result, what usually happens is acceptance that this is the way it is, and the way it’s always going to be. Let’s call it what it is: institutional inertia. It’s an uncomfortable topic to discuss.

It’s stagnation, it’s a lack of progress, and the results can be deadly in this line of work. Is there a way to get your big boat turned? Absolutely, but in order to turn a big boat, pressure needs to be applied in specific places, and it takes patience and time.
Learning where and how to apply that pressure is critical to making gains and removing your team from the grips of institutional inertia.
As a young sniper I quickly learned that gaining the trust of your leadership is critical to opening the doors to new opportunity. If you want work for your team, your command structure needs to have complete trust and confidence in your abilities.

How do we establish that confidence? It starts with effective communication skills, and creating awareness of deficiencies. Make an effort to deliver solutions to problems rather than simply highlighting problems.
That simple act can go a long way, and presenting multiple courses of action to solve one problem shows that you’re open to suggestions.

I’ve also had a lot of success by inviting leadership to training events. The intent here is to create awareness through illustrating what you do, and what you may be up against when it comes to time, resources and money. Maybe you’re trying to convince your department that you need an infrared illumination capability to augment your current night vision assets and you’re getting push back because of cost.
Reach out to an IR laser company to get a test and evaluation unit, and set up a night shoot for your leadership to see the undeniable pros and cons of positive target identification with that IR asset.
How do you sell it? That’s easy; who doesn’t want to shoot a sniper rifle with night vision and lasers? This is just one example of an attempt to get your leadership engaged with what you do.

Good relationships with your leadership generally equal positive results. Another trend I see is a lack of progression with equipment. The world of precision rifles, optics and other support equipment has literally exploded with innovation in the last 10 years. With that comes a wide variety of solutions that aren’t necessarily associated with a high cost.

Still shooting that tired old Remington M700 PSS that your department bought 10, maybe 15 years ago? Tired of using foam and duct tape to build up a cheek piece that’s inconsistent and unstable? Can’t mount an in-line night vision optic to your rifle? There are plenty of cost-effective stock replacement options out there that will solve those problems.

I’m honestly blown away when this topic comes up in class and only a handful of students are aware of these advancements. The only way you’re going to stay abreast of these advancements is to take the initiative and do the research. With the information age being a way of life, there’s no excuse to not be current with equipment advancements within your discipline.
We don’t always have to do more with less. Let’s say you’ve taken the initiative and educated yourself on the current state-of-the-art as it relates to equipment, tactics, techniques and procedures. You’ve carefully and artfully developed your sales pitch for some more training time and updated equipment.

Bulk Ammo In-Stock

You’ve outlined solutions before highlighting the problems. You make your pitch, and it’s answered with “Why do we need this? We’ve always been able to make it happen with what we’ve already got. It’s good enough.” It’s incredibly frustrating, and like mentioned above, it’s institutional inertia at work.
Change is scary, change is resisted, and change takes time. How can we find a chink in that armor? A lot of this comes from education and using as many resources as possible to solidify your position. As an example, I always ask my students if they’ve ever heard of the American Sniper Association’s Police Sniper Utilization Report.

Surprisingly only a small percentage of hands go up, and quite frankly, I see that as completely unsatisfactory.
The data in that document alone can be enough to support your position and get your leadership to see merit in your request. Seeing a trend here?
Initiative and education are powerful tools, and they both go a long way to building credibility and defeating institutional inertia. I wish I had all the space necessary to touch on all the topics that law enforcement snipers need to address.

There are so many small things that contribute to the overall preparedness of a law enforcement sniper, and for some, you may be fighting an uphill battle. My intent with this article was to provide some insight and tools for those in need, and to get the creative juices flowing so you can hopefully invoke some positive change.

Snipers are selected based on certain personality traits. Intelligent, intellectual, creative, resourceful and passionate are just a few that come to mind. If you’re one of the many who are plagued with some of the problems mentioned above and want to invoke positive change, be humble, take the initiative, educate yourself, use every available resource, and be relentless in your pursuit. Never accept average.
Editor’s note: Author Caylen Wojcik is the owner/founder of Kalinski Consulting & Training Services, which specializes in providing precision shooting instruction to law enforcement and military professionals. To learn more, please visit

Snipers on their Job

Three Former Marine Corps Scout Snipers Talk About Their Profession

A while back American Sniper movie was a big hit on the silver screen, we checked in with three former Marine Corps snipers for their thoughts on the profession, how it changed them, America’s deadliest marksman Chris Kyle, and advice for aspiring snipers.

Caylen Wojcik Former 1st Marine Division Scout Sniper School instructor; deployed as a chief sniper during Operation Iraqi Freedom II; over 100 combat missions; severely wounded by enemy rocket fire during Operation Phantom Fury; founded Central Cascade Precision; now with Magpul Dynamics.

Jason Mann Twenty years in the USMC, 11 in a sniper platoon; retired after 20 years with the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department; president of U.S. Marine Corps Scout Sniper Association.

Trey Dominick Joined USMC in 2006; deployed to Afghanistan and twice to Iraq as an infantry assaultman and scout sniper; following honorable discharge, worked for U.S. Embassy in Iraq as a designated defense marksman; currently works for Iron Protection Group in Colorado.

D BRETEAU (former AmSJ Editor) What is your overall insight into the sniper profession, and how did it change you, if at all?

JASON MANN Other than being a proud father to four children, nothing makes me prouder than being able to say I am a Marine and a Marine scout sniper.
CAYLEN WOJCIK My definition of a Marine scout sniper is a Marine highly skilled in fieldcraft and marksmanship who delivers long-range precision fire on selected targets from concealed positions in support of combat operations. Shooting is 10 percent of your purpose, but when you’re called upon to utilize that skill, it becomes 100 percent of your focus. Snipers are a part of a brotherhood, and that brotherhood is a level of selflessness that most will never truly understand. Discipline, self-reliance, teamwork, perseverance and fortitude are just a few things I believe I took with me that have been a great benefit.

TREY DOMINICK It helped me become stronger in stressful situations. I have
learned to take a step back in order to make logical decisions. This process can be used in any aspect of your life.
DB Did you ever meet Chris Kyle?

JM I met Chris at SHOT Show several years ago. I just shook his hand and said hello.

CW I did not know Chris Kyle; however, we operated in generally the same area of operations during the same time period. Chris was a SEAL, and he operated primarily in the vicinity of Ramadi, whereas I operated within the vicinity of Fallujah, which was about 45 minutes away.

DB Have you seen American Sniper or read the book, and if so, what were your thoughts on the topic and authenticity?

TD I have read the book twice. I thought it portrayed Chris Kyle’s story very well. I can’t really touch on the authenticity of his story, but from everything I have read about his story and my personal experience as a sniper, I cannot find anything I feel is widely exaggerated. The thing that troubles me most is how there are many people saying his stories are false now that he has passed away.

JM I have not seen the movie. I am apprehensive because another movie
representing Marine scout snipers was horribly done and reflected poorly on us. I have read the book. For many years the roles of snipers were rarely spoken of and there weren’t many books on the subject. But since 9/11 there has been a litany, and most, in my opinion, attempt to glamorize and elevate, which I do not appreciate. The focus should not be on taking a life, but on the makeup of the man, selection,
training, mission preparation and all that goes along with that. The killing of a human being is a very small part, actually. I believe today we are seeing too many seeking their 15 minutes of fame and will do or say just about anything to make that happen. We are seeing a number of persons who misrepresent themselves and their roles, and that lends itself to misinformation and glamorization.

DB What would you say to the general public about the sniper profession? To
those aspiring to the position?

JM The skill sets that scout snipers possess represent the very best in the
American serviceman. These skills deliver disproportionate results on the
battlefield and are a true force multiplier. The enemy truly fears the sniper.

CW I would first ask yourself if you’re ready and willing to do whatever it
takes to get there. Being physically fit isn’t enough, and there’s a huge difference between being physically tough and mentally tough. You’ll endure incredible physical and mental hardships. You’ll be hot, cold, wet, dirty and hungry when no one else
is. You’ll be held to a higher standard, and be expected to do more with less. You’ll be expected to go farther, with heavier weight on your back. You’ll be expected to immerse yourself into dangerous situations with only a very small team to rely on. If you make it, the first time you lay hands on that rifle after you graduate will be a
moment you’ll never forget.

TD Snipers are the calm professionals of the infantry. We are the ones out there making quiet, calculated decisions on the battlefield. To the aspiring I would
say, this isn’t going to be an easy or quick process, so if you really want to be a sniper, just keep with it and know that you will be tested.

DB Anything else to say to our readers?

JM There have been many controversial incidents relating to Marine scout
snipers of late, but the vast majority of activities have been in support of combat operations in a far away country to defend this great nation.

CW Snipers are not mindless, murderous killers. Snipers are selected and trained based upon not only physical strength and aptitude, but on their ability to make sound decisions while immersed in highly stressful scenarios.

by Danielle Breteau AmSJ

History of the Sniper

The Long Road to Recognition – Updated

In 1944, the War Department Basic Field Manual FM 21-75, Infantry Scouting, Patrolling and Sniping defined the sniper as “…an expert rifleman, well qualified in scouting, whose duty is to pick off key enemy personnel who expose themselves. By eliminating enemy leaders and harassing the troops, sniping softens the enemy’s resistance and weakens his morale.” That definition remains consistent through the broader history of sniping, before and since, whether the weapon was a crossbow or a high-powered, telescopically sighted rifle.

The sniper is an incredibly efficient fighter, compared to the typical infantryman. Consider that in World War II, American infantry units fired 25,000 rounds to kill just one enemy soldier. By the Korean War, that figure jumped to 50,000 rounds, and the select-fire M14 and M16 infantry rifles of the Vietnam War only seem to have produced more misses, requiring the expenditure of 200,000 rounds to kill one enemy combatant. Nowadays, it’s a quarter million rounds of spraying and praying to kill a single Taliban. By comparison, on average, a sniper requires only 1.3 bullets to kill an enemy. During the Vietnam War, it was noted on many occasions that a handful of snipers accounted for more enemy killed than the entire infantry battalion (and sometimes even regiment) they were assigned to.

It was the wildly disproportionate contribution of snipers in the Vietnam War that set the stage for the first permanent peacetime sniper training programs. The U.S. Marine Corps set theirs up first at Quantico, Va., in 1977, and the U.S. Army followed suit at Fort Benning, Ga., in 1985. Snipers were finally on the TO&E (Tables of Organization & Equipment) of combat units, which meant they would always be ready for deployment. The rigorous training programs ensured the accumulated knowledge, gained from combat experience, would be preserved and ready when it was needed. Another critically important achievement of the USMC Scout Sniper and U.S. Army Sniper Schools was the creation of the U.S. military’s first purpose-built sniper rifles. Again, the USMC led the way with the M40A1 and the U.S.Sniper

Army followed with the M24 Sniper Weapons System. Both were based on the Remington 700-bolt action rifle, chambered in 7.62x51mm NATO. Prior to that, snipers used standard service rifles, specially selected for their accuracy and equipped with telescopic sights or commercial, offthe-shelf sporting rifles, as was the case in the black powder era and the Vietnam War. The upside of using the standard service rifle as the basis for a sniper conversion was complete parts and ordnance maintenance support from the normal supply channels. The downside was that the most accurate service rifles were not nearly as good as the best commercially available hunting rifles. The accuracy of the service rifle was always hampered by hand guards, stacking swivels and bayonet lugs hanging off the barrel – items totally useless to a sniper.

It is ironic that a country built on a tradition of rifle marksmanship took nearly 200 years to formally embrace the sniper, the man that represents the military apex of that long tradition. In each major war, through Vietnam, our armed forces began with no snipers and had to create training programs, usually in the theater of operations, to train them on the spot. Training varied from none to good, but the typical formula that has made many a successful American sniper is a rural background with early and continuous exposure to hunting or competitive, rifle shooting. Time after time, at the conclusion of the war, the sniper schools were closed and the snipers faded away.

The knowledge they gained in the deadly art of hunting men faded away with them and had to be retaught in the next war. This happened because America’s senior military leaders saw the sniper as a specialist, of small importance compared to the conventional infantry, artillery, cavalry (and later armored) forces who massively outnumbered him. From the general’s point of view, snipers didn’t win wars; huge armies did.

DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, volunteers from the frontier colonies took their long rifles to war. No British soldier within 400 yards was safe, and 200-yard, one-shot-kills were common. Riflemen terrorized the British, on the march and in garrison, picking off officers and noncommissioned officers from hidden positions. Without any formal guidance, they were doing exactly the same mission as snipers do today, but the British had far greater respect for them than General George Washington. Slow to load and lacking the capacity for a bayonet, the rifles and the unruly men who wielded them were ill-suited to the linear tactics of the day. General Washington thought the riflemen were more trouble than they were worth and didn’t want them in the Continental Army.

civilwssIn the American Civil War, snipers were called sharpshooters and recruited for their marksmanship skill. The percussion-lock rifled musket and minie ball of the period greatly increased accuracy, without sacrificing speed of loading, and made the battlefield a much deadlier place. Some sharpshooters made use of early telescopic sights and many used their personal weapons in battle. The breech-loading Sharps rifle was popular among Union sharpshooters because it could be loaded lying down, behind cover. The standard muzzle loading, rifled musket required the soldier to stand up to load it, thus exposing himself to enemy fire.

Confederates favored the British Whitworth rifle (maybe the first long-range sniper rifle in the world), when they could get it. With its unique hexagonal shaped, fast-twisting bore, instead of conventional cut rifling, it fired a six-sided bullet accurately just over a mile. It was the first military rifle built for long range accuracy. A Confederate sharpshooter, armed with a Whitworth rifle, killed Union General John Sedgwick at the Battle of Pennsylvania from a range of 800 yards.
The Whitworth rifle was capable of hitting the target at a range of 2,000 yards.
Designed by Sir Joseph Whitworth, a prominent British engineer, it used polygonal rifling instead, which meant that the projectile did not have to bite into grooves as was done with conventional rifling.
ww1sniperDURING WORLD WAR I, THE skill sets and standard operating procedures of our present-day snipers were developed and codified in no-man’s land and the trenches. By that time, the bolt action rifle reached the pinnacle of its development as an infantry weapon. It had a five- to 10-round magazine and fired a much smaller caliber, high-velocity and aerodynamic bullet, propelled by smokeless powder, up to 3 miles.

Once he had a suitable modern weapon, the scout sniper emerged in a form identical to the present day. Now actually called a sniper, he can engage targets at 1,000 yards with more precision than luck. Whether shooting from behind or in front of friendly lines, he selects his hiding place carefully and uses camouflage to conceal himself and his spotter. He may wait for hours or days to get a shot at his target. When and if he does fire, it is rarely more than a few shots before he must move to avoid detection. (Smokeless powder makes it much more difficult for the enemy to locate his position.)

Sniper rifles are now commonly equipped with telescopic sights. Germany, thanks to their world renowned optics industry, initially dominated the battlefield by putting 20,000 scoped rifles (some of them civilian hunting rifles) in the hands of its best marksmen. The Allied nations had to play catch up. The United States Army fielded the ungainly 6x magnification prismatic Warner & Swasey scope, mounted on the .30-06 M1903 Springfield Rifle. It looked strange and it was clumsy, but it worked. It had over twice the magnification of most scopes of the day.

ww2sniperBy World War II, telescopic sights improved and rugged, domestically made ones with fair weather resistance, like the 2.5x-power Lyman Alaskan (military M81/M82), were mounted on the standard .30-06 M1 semiautomatic rifle. The old M1903 Springfield, with an improved 10x-power Unertl scope, served the USMC, and the simplified M1903A4, with a 2x-power M73B1 scope was a substitute standard for both services. In World War II, the United States was almost continuously on the offensive.

Both the Japanese and Germans often used snipers, suicidally, to cover their withdrawals and stall the allied advance. The greatest threat to a sniper is another sniper, so U.S. Army infantry platoons commonly designated a scout sniper in the headquarters section to be employed at the commander’s discretion. Contrary to our image of the American sniper as a lone wolf on the battlefield, they also fought as platoons. When the Marines invaded Betio in the Tarawa Atoll on Nov. 20, 1943, Lt. William D. Hawkins led his platoon of scout snipers on a mission, far in advance of the main forces. They hunted down, and eliminated, enemy machine gunners and snipers to protect the advance of their fellow Marines at the long pier. They fought with grenades and flamethrowers, as well as precision rifle fire. Lt. Hawkins died in the battle, but his ferocity in combat earned him the Medal of Honor.

Another fact that historian forget is that the U.S. Army’s lack of familiarity with sniping tactics proved disastrous in Normandy and the campaign in Western Europe where they encountered well trained German snipers.
In Normandy, German snipers remained hidden in the dense vegetation and were able to encircle American units, firing at them from all sides.
The American and British forces were surprised by how near the German snipers could approach in safety and attack them, as well as by their ability to hit targets at up to 1,000m. A notable mistake made by inexperienced American soldiers was to lie down and wait when targeted by German snipers, allowing the snipers to pick them off one after another. German snipers often infiltrated Allied lines and sometimes when the front-lines moved, they continued to fight from their sniping positions, refusing to surrender until their rations and munitions were exhausted.

koreanwsniperTHE SNIPER’S ROLE IN THE KOREAN War bore similarities to World War I: static lines, an attrition strategy and costly frontal attacks. Once again, the precision contributions of the hastily The longest confirmed kill by an American sniper was taken with a semiautomatic .50-caliber BMG M82 Barrett. trained snipers (now equipped with M1D sniper rifles and 2.2x-power M84 scopes) was overshadowed by the mass slaughter wrought by concentrated small arms and artillery fire.

Korea was a big war fought in a small place. If machine guns had trouble stopping human-wave attacks used by the Communist Chinese, what could snipers possibly do? By contrast, snipers made undeniably significant contributions in the Vietnam War and all the wars that followed it. The nature and scale of combat changed in a manner that favored the sniper. Vietnam was a big war, but only in the aggregate. It was fought in small engagements over a large area and a long period of time.

In this environment, the sniper was on more equal terms with the enemy. Combat actions in Grenada, Beirut, Iraq and Afghanistan were likewise small in scale, compared to the World Wars and Korea. The superior equipment, training and communication of today’s snipers makes them the deadliest warriors on the battlefield.

Carlos-HathcockIn Vietnam in 1967, USMC scout sniper legend Carlos Hathcock mounted a scope on an M2 .50-caliber heavy machine gun and used it to make the longest recorded sniper kill in history. His 2,286-meter record stood until 2002, when a Canadian sniper broke it by 24 meters in Afghanistan using a MacMillan Tac-50 bolt-action rifle in the same caliber. Hathcock’s improvised, ultralong-range, sniping demonstration was a harbinger of things to come. In 1990 the U.S. Army purchased the .50-caliber BMG M82 Barrett, semiautomatic sniper rifle for use in Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm in Iraq. Later it would be standardized as the M107.

This rifle was used by Army Ranger Sgt. Bryan Kremer in Iraq, in March 2004, to make the 2,300-meter kill that now stands as the farthest for an American sniper. His was the fourth-longest kill shot in recorded history. For the record, the credit for the farthest kill goes to British sniper Craig Harrison, who made an incredible 2,475-meter shot with an Accuracy International L115A3 rifle in .338 Lapua Magnum.

Fast forward to 2017, a Canadian sniper who is part of an elite Joint Coalition Force battling against ISIS in Iraq. Takes a successful shot from 3,540 meters away at a militant, which took almost 10 seconds for the bullet to reach its target.

338lapuaRoundThe .338 Lapua round was designed to out range the powerful .300 Winchester and extend the sniper’s lethality to 1,600 meters. Chief petty officer Chris Kyle used a McMillan Tac-338 bolt-action rifle in .338 Lapua Magnum to make his farthest kill, at 1,920 meters, against an enemy combatant about to fire an RPG at a passing American convoy. In World Wars I and II, American snipers were expected to make 600-yard hits. This was reasonable, in light of the limitations of their service-riflebased sniper rifles, and the ordinary ball ammunition they had to use. Today’s sniper is expected to hit the target at twice that range.

The sniper’s skills remain the same, but his tools have greatly improved. Laser range finders, bipods, high-magnification scopes, night-vision scopes, match grade ammunition, rugged specialty rifles built to take the abuse of combat and deliver competition accuracy, and excellent, often continuous communication, all contribute to getting the bullet where the sniper needs it to go, with greater accuracy than ever before possible.

The film American Sniper has grossed over $250 million as of this writing, making it the most popular war film in American history. Its themes resonate with the public right now and are sure to generate an increased interest in long-range rifle marksmanship that will serve the cause of freedom well in wars to come. The film tells a slightly fictionalized account of the life of the aforementioned SEAL sniper Chris Kyle, who learned to shoot as a boy in rural Texas, perhaps not unlike our sharpshooters of yore, and became one of the most successful snipers in U.S. military history, saving countless American lives on the battlefield with his shooting ability.

Here are some questions about Snipers:

Who is the Deadliest Sniper in history?

During the Winter War in 1939-1940, one of the deadliest sniper to be given credit is Simo Häyhä. He had more than 505 kills, more than 13,550,000 bullets would have been needed in Vietnam.
Häyhä fought for Finland against the Soviet Union. During his 98-day reign of terror, Häyhä was unseen and unheard, yet was all the while targeting Russian soldiers with deadly accuracy, once even killing 25 men in one day.
With snipers presenting such a high-value targets on the battlefield, Simo’s reputation as a marksman soon reached the Russian front lines; they referred to him as “The White Death”. He remains the deadliest sniper who ever lived.

Do Snipers go for head shots?
Military snipers, who generally do not shoot at targets at less than 300 m (330 yd), usually attempt body shots, aiming at the chest.

What magnification scope do snipers use?
The standard 10x scope are used. This has been considered the ideal magnification for those needing to make body shots on targets at medium to long range. It is best used from 250 yards on out to 1000.

What range do snipers zero?
Zeroing is very precise, if you have a small error at 100 yards this becomes bigger one at 1,000 yards. If your zero is off by just ½-inch at the 100-yard mark, this could mean five full inches further down range.

What is the best scope magnification for 1000 yards?

  • Schmidt and Bender PM II High Power 5-45×56 (34mm Tube)
  • Nightforce 5.5-22×50 NXS Riflescope
  • Primary Arms Platinum Series 6-30x56mm Riflescope
  • Vortex Razor HD 5-20x Riflescope
  • Leupold MK 4 LR/T 4.5-14x50mm M1 TMR
  • What is the most powerful sniper scope?
    Nightforce Optics 5.5-22×56 NXS Riflescope – its considered one of the most advanced field sniper scopes in the market today. Its wide magnification allows for precision accuracy at the longest range.

    what’s a decent scope for 1000 yards?

  • Steiner T5Xi 5-25x 56mm Riflescope​
  • Vortex Viper HST 6-24×50 Riflescope
  • NightForce 5.5-22×56 NXS Riflescope​
  • Why do Snipers need spotters?
    A spotter calculates the distance, and makes the wind call. The sniper on the gun follows directions, so both people know where they stand if the first shot misses. Which both can assess to make changes.

    How far can Snipers shoot?
    World’s longest sniper kill – 2.47km twice! With great skill sets and technology with a little luck from mother nature, the distance will continue to increase. Making a sniper most feared person on the battle field along with being one of the most cost effective way of killing an enemy.

    Do Snipers sleep?
    Snipers usually work in teams, one sniper often rests while the other remains awake and alert. .. Snipers don’t remain out in the field for too lengthy periods of time as that degrades their edge and competency.

    What makes a sniper a sniper?
    The sniper, a soldier trained in precision, long-range fire, is one of the most feared opponents on the battlefield. Snipers can make their presence felt far beyond a typical soldier’s assault rifle, cutting down enemy leaders, radio and heavy weapons operators, and damaging enemy equipment at considerable distances.

    What is better .308 or .30-06?
    The .30-06 caliber may have a slight edge in terms of velocity, but a .308 will have slightly less recoil. The difference in bullet drop between the two will be negligible.

    by AmSJ Frank Jardim

    Sources: Wikipedia, U.S. Army, Quora

    Sniper Headshot

    Why its so Deadly

    Anyone that has trained as a sniper/marksman in the military or law enforcement will remember that to quickly neutralize a bad guy, is to aim your weapon at their facial area inside the T area.

    Firing any caliber into the T area of the face will pretty much shut you down.

    This T section wasn’t just taught to only snipers but to operatives and street cops, using your assault rifle and handguns. Drills were devised called “double tap” to the T box to quickly stop the threat.

    One drawback from this type of implementation is that it is an extremely difficult shot and requires practice. This type of close quarter shooting and sniping is usually dedicated to the elite SWAT or operative from Special Forces. The budget requires more ammo for operative to be train to achieve a deadly level of competency.

    The Mythical Headshot
    Even though the T area is considered the most vulnerable part of the head. In reality other areas of the head shots do not stop an individual in their track. Other head injuries that can ensue such as face deformity and brain damage. There are some that survive with a fully functional brain.

    Why the T-box is Lethal
    The T-box covers the nose and behind the eyes. These sensory organs don’t actually matter themselves, but are simply the target area. What makes the T-Box different from any other area is the part of the brain which rests directly behind it. Beyond this point is the lower brain, the parts most responsible for the processes that cause us to continue living. It houses the brain stem which is responsible for our organs functioning automatically, namely our heart, lungs, our central nervous system, as well as controlling the rest of our brain itself. This means that losing it guarantees a complete and instantaneous loss of consciousness and life.

    Internal Ballistics
    The truth is, the T-Box can actually be much larger depending on the caliber of the round. This is because ballistic effects on soft targets have cumulative effects which help to guarantee a complete loss of lower brain function. A bullet doesn’t just pass through a medium. Another movie myth would suggest that a bullet just punctures at a given point of entry then bores a bullet sized hole all the way through. Reality is much more graphic than that.

    Like any kinetic object, a moving object will release its energy into the medium with which it travels. My examples will be with a standard issue 9mm Beretta pistol, commonly issued throughout the military and law enforcement, as well as widely available to the common buyer. The energy of that weapon can be measured as an 8 gram mass moving at around 381 meters per second generating about 3 Newtons of force. Those three or so Newtons of energy will be released into a target proportionally to the resistance it gives the bullet as it travels. A good analog for what 3 Newtons is would be the force of 3 apples falling. This doesn’t sound extremely powerful, but it must also be emphasized that this is a massive amount of force being emanated from a very narrow channel, the cavity created by the bullet. This transition of force results in the bullet slowing down as the cavity it created expands explosively.

    This is what explosive expansion looks like on ballistics gel, the best analog for human bodily tissue. Ballistics experts even measure this property, referred to as “cavitation” or the measurement of the cavity produced by ballistics. This gel features a larger bullet than the 9mm, but showcases the effects within the human body. This is an especially potent event in the brain. It can’t be communicated enough that most of a bullet’s damage doesn’t center on the direct path it takes through the body, but through the absorption of energy. The most important factor to consider is that that cavity you see above shouldn’t just be smaller; it shouldn’t exist. We are talking about cells which once touched being violently propelled from one another. Within the brain, that represents cells and neurons that exist and operate within nanometers, momentarily separated by a space of several inches, and never able to return to their original structure.

    Placing this event anywhere near the lower brain, namely the brain stem, will result in the violent and immediate fragmentation of all necessary working processes providing both awareness to the victim, as well as control of all bodily functions. That means they are instantly dead.

    But Will We Know It’s Coming?
    So we have shown that any bullet placed within this area will result in death, absolutely and non-negotiably, but are we sure we wouldn’t be able to realize we had been shot, or even shot at, first?

    Now we are asking a question about the comparison of the speed of a bullet in flight and the cognitive capabilities of the human perceptive system. Our 9mm Beretta fires a round which has a muzzle velocity, the speed it travels through the air when it leaves the weapon, of around 1,250 ft/s or 381 m/s.

    Reaction time for people is something like 0.2 seconds if you are skilled and practiced at very certain tasks which you are prepared for and expect to occur. That isn’t the case here. Under normal conditions, you could expect to be able to react to something, given about 1.5 seconds notice. Using our metrics from the Beretta, at the velocity the bullet is moving, you would have to be capable of watching it moving for over 570 meters, or over a third of a mile, just to have time to react to it. Considering the size and speed of the round in question, I am going to consider that, for all intents and purposes, impossible.

    You also won’t be able to hear the bullet fire either. The speed of sound is 1,126 feet per second, or 343.205 m/s. Looking back at our old numbers, the 9mm Beretta clocks in at 1,250 ft/s or 381 m/s, we see that the bullet itself is supersonic. For that reason, you would never hear it coming until long after it has done its job. For argument’s sake, in the case of the slowest bullets out there travel at 339.7504 m/s. This means they are actually only 4 m/s slower than mach 1. Given that this difference makes the slowest rounds only .01% slower than sound and the fact we still require another 1.5 seconds to process that sound, this bullet would still have had to have traveled over a fifth of a mile before you could possibly hear it in time to recognize and process. Being that no handgun firing such a slow round is even effective at that range, and also that there is no way to know if you are diving to a safer location than you already occupy, we could say that it too is rhetorical. There is no chance that you will ever hear a round with your name on it.

    The Bullet that has your Name on it
    Having said all this, you can safely know that any unfortunate victim of being shot with any caliber round aimed directly to the imaginary T-box area of the face will be dead. In fact, they will die so thoroughly and immediately, that the last cognizant thing their mind registers will be the sight of the barrel of the weapon which was about to kill them… before their brain explodes.

    This topic originally appeared as an answer by Jon Davis on Quora.
    Sources: Jon Davis, Quora, Business Insider

    6 Longest Sniper Shots in History

    All but one of the top six longest sniper shots in history have taken place in this century. Check out the six longest sniper shots of all time.

    All six of the longest sniper shots of all time have taken place in the 21st century and all were taken at distances over 1 1/4 miles. Training, natural shooting ability, quality equipment, great observers and a little bit of plain old luck are necessary to consistently make such long range shots under demanding conditions.

    Long range shooting has dramatically evolved since the invention of the gun. Just 200 years ago hitting a target 100-200 yards away with a single shot was quite a feat. Now, well-trained marksmen using the most sophisticated shooting equipment ever developed can successfully engage targets over a mile and a half away.

    Technology is certainly a major part of the equation, but there is much more involved than that. Variables such as wind and distances plays a huge factor in figuring out the hi tech “kentucky windage”. Read on to learn more about these incredible marksmen and how they made the longest sniper shots of all time.

    Unnamed South African Recce Sniper: 2,125 m (2,324 yd)

    Date: August 2013
    Rifle: Denel NTW-14.5
    Cartridge: 14.5x114mm
    Conflict: Battle of Kibati, United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Even though it is the most recent entry on this list of the longest sniper shots of all time, few people are familiar with the circumstances of it because it occurred in a little known conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    The South African Army currently has soldiers operating in the Congo supporting the efforts of the United Nations to stabilize the country. During August of 2013, they were attacked by rebel forces and the Battle of Kibati raged for several days. A South African sniper (whose name has not been released) made this incredible shot with a Denel NTW-14.5 anti-material rifle during the battle. This is the longest-range confirmed kill ever made by the 14.5x114mm cartridge.

    Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock: 2,286 m (2,500 yd)

    Nationality: United States
    Date:February 1967
    Weapon:M2 Browning Machine Gun
    Cartridge:.50 BMG
    Conflict:Vietnam War

    Legendary United States Marine Corps sniper Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock had 93 confirmed kills in Vietnam, one of which was this incredible shot that he made on a Viet Cong guerrilla at a range of 2,500 yards (1.42 miles). Firing from a fixed position on a Marine Corps fire base in Vietnam, Hathcock used an M2 Browning .50 cal machine gun (similar to the one in the photo), firing in single shot mode with a 10x scope mounted on it when he made the shot.

    Hathcock’s record for the longest sniper shot of all time stood for over 35 years before it was broken in 2002.

    Sergeant Brian Kremer: 2,300 m (2,515 yd)

    Nationality:United States
    Date:March 2004
    Rifle:Barrett M82A1 (M107)
    Cartridge:.50 BMG
    Conflict:Iraq War

    SGT Kremer’s 2,515-yard (1.43 miles) shot narrowly edged out Gunnery Sergeant Hathcock for number four on this list. Kremer’s shot is the longest confirmed kill of the Iraq War (beating Navy SEAL Chris Kyle’s famous shot by over 400 yards) and the longest confirmed kill ever made with a Barrett M82A1 sniper rifle (known in the Army as the M017).

    This is also the longest confirmed kill ever made by an American sniper.

    Master Corporal Aaron Perry: 2,310 m (2,526 yd)

    Date:March 2002
    Rifle:McMillan Tac-50
    Cartridge: .50 BMG
    Conflict: War in Afghanistan

    Master Corporal Aaron Perry was a member of a Canadian team of snipers deployed to Afghanistan who supported NATO and Northern Alliance forces during Operation Anaconda in March of 2002. The six snipers on the team amassed over 20 confirmed kills in a matter of days during the battle. One of the confirmed kills was made by Perry, a 2,526-yard (1.43 miles) shot that narrowly broke Gunnery Sergeant Hathcock’s 35-year-old record for the longest confirmed sniper kill of all time.

    Corporal Rob Furlong: 2,430 m (2,657 yd)

    Nationality: Canada
    Date: March 2002
    Rifle:McMillan Tac-50
    Cartridge:.50 BMG
    Conflict:War in Afghanistan

    A member of the same team of snipers as his comrade in arms, Master Corporal Aaron Perry, Corporal Rob Furlong broke Perry’s new record for the longest range sniper shot of all time just days after Perry set the record himself. Furlong’s record stood for over seven years before it was broken. Interestingly enough, this is still the longest ever confirmed kill made by a rifle firing the .50 BMG cartridge.

    Corporal Of Horse Craig Harrison: 2,475 m (2,707 yd)

    Nationality:United Kingdom
    Date: November 2009
    Rifle: Accuracy International L115A3
    Cartridge:.338 Lapua
    Conflict:War in Afghanistan

    The number one spot on this list of the longest sniper shots of all time is held by Corporal of Horse Craig Harrison of the British Army with a 2,707-yard (1.53 miles) shot he made in Afghanistan. He set this incredible record in November 2009 when engaging a Taliban machine gun team in Helmand Province.

    During the engagement, he actually made this incredible shot twice, killing both men manning the machine gun. To give you an idea of just how far of a shot that is, it took over three seconds for his bullets to reach the target. What makes this shot even more impressive is that these shots were made at a distance over 1,000 yards greater than the normal maximum effective range of this rifle.

    Sources: DailyMail, NY News, Blogspot, Marine Sniper 2003, Military Factory, Wikipedia, John McAdams

    Are Snipers the Ultimate Cool Soldier?

    In a segment from National Geographic Ultimate Soldiers we look at one of snipers attribute, that is “mind control“. A well-trained sniper uses mind over matter to control his own physiology. A situation that many snipers find themselves in the middle east is operating in a hot climate.

    In this test to highlight a long range precision shooter ability to shoot between heartbeat. Researchers build a sniper coffin with a gun port, 100 feet away sits a target. Increasing the heat temperature is another simulation to increase the stress on the sniper. Increased heat can raise your heart rate and with longer period exposed can instill dehydration. See how cool this sniper does on this test.

    Video Transcription
    Doug: Ok, today we’re gonna be doing some Sniper testing, and we have secured the services of a United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper, who is still operational, and he’s gonna be wearing a balaclava, and for that reason, we’re going to introduce him only as Mike.

    Narrator: Mike’s missions are so critical, we must obscure his identity for the test.

    Mike: One quiet professional, at the right place, at the right time, can end wars before they start. One shot, one kill. Marine Scout Sniper.

    Doug: Well what we’ve done here is, we’ve made a sniper coffin. We’ve got over here this plexiglass box, and we’re gonna put you in this box. It’s got a gunport right here, you’ll put your gun through the gunport, and you’ll be shooting at a target 100 feet away. Explain to me this ‘pulling a trigger off between heartbeats’ thing.

    Mike: You can feel your heartbeat basically rebounding off the surface that you’re resting on.

    Doug: And I guess you’re just timing the shot between the beats that you’re already feeling.

    Mike: Yes.

    Doug: Now you’ve operated over in the middle-east, right? So you’re used to the heat.

    Mike: Correct.

    Doug: Ok.

    Narrator: To test the sharpshooter’s breaking point under the combat conditions of the Middle East, the Fight Science crew will raise the stakes, and the temperature.

    David Sandler: Extreme heat does a lot to the body. Obvious things like dehydration are some of the first things that come to mind, and that of course increases heart rate, breathing rate–”

    Doug: Pretty hot in there, David?

    David: It’s up at 130 degrees. It’s right up there.

    Narrator: Doug Martin assembles the safety team, and reviews the dangers of firing live rounds in the Lab.

    Doug: Shooting guns indoors is not exactly a safe endeavour. Eyes and ears. Everybody needs to have eye protection on, if there is a safety violation or if there is an emergency where there’s an injury, I’ll call Ed in, the medic– alright, let’s have a safe shoot.

    Narrator: The sniper wears a bio-harness to monitor his heart rate and breathing, so the scientists can measure his performance under extreme combat conditions. He will also be swallowing a pill that measures his core body temperature.

    Mike: I was a little worried, swallowing a white pill before they throw me in a box called a Sniper Coffin.

    Narrator: High-tech thermal imaging will project the sniper’s core body temperatures onto a monitor, so scientists can track his vitals. If his core temperature rises, so will his heart rate, leaving him less time to shoot between beats.

    Doug: You know what’s interesting is, under all this stress your heart rate’s still nice and baseline, nice and mellow.

    Narrator: The sniper’s been in the 130 degree heat chamber for 20 minutes. His core temperature has risen by one degree, but he’s not focusing on the heat, he’s focusing on his breathing.

    Doug: Ok, this is a live shot!

    David: Now we’re gonna see if we can distinguish truth from legend, and see if a sniper can actually shoot between heartbeats.

    Doug: Three, two, one, fire.


    Doug: Weapon on safe?

    Mike: Yeah.

    Doug: Whew! Ok, wanna see how you did?

    Mike: Yeah.

    Doug: Alright, can you run the high-speed please? Phew! Nice. Nicely done!

    Narrator: The shot is dead-on. An easy distance for a sniper, but was it between heartbeats?

    David: Well you actually did it, and our rhythm shows it smack between heartbeats, like you had it perfectly timed.

    Mike: I was able to keep my heart rate under control by relaxing, diaphragmatic breathing, clearing your mind, thinking about nothing but what’s right around you.

    Narrator: So how did Mike shoot between heartbeats? In the 130-degree coffin, Mike’s heart beats 135 times per minute. With each beat, a surge of blood fills the vessels. As the blood reaches the trigger finger, it swells with each pulse. This pulse is enough movement to cause a slight deviation in the sniper’s shot, making the difference between a direct hit, or a missed target. To pull off an accurate shot, Mike must slow down his heart rate. First he decreases his respiratory rate, by taking extended full-diaphragmatic breaths. He gradually reduces his breathing from eighteen breaths per minute to approximately six. within a few minutes, he lowers his heart rate to eighty-four beats per minute. This creates more time to shoot between heartbeats. Timing is everything. Immediately after Mike feels his heartbeat reverberate off the surface he’s resting on, he pulls the trigger. Shooting his weapon between beats, and hitting his target dead-on.

    Sources: National Geographic Youtube