I have never taken a class at the Gunsite Academy and I don’t claim to know Jeff Cooper. I do know that he saved my life, and if you carry a gun for a living, at some point he is going to save yours too. In order to digest this sweeping statement you have to understand how things were before Lieutenant Colonel Jeff Cooper, USMC (retired/deceased), developed the “modern techniques” of small arms training and opened the Gunsite Training Academy in Paulden, Ariz. THE FIRST FIREARM that I carried was a Marine Corpsissue .45-caliber pistol. The date: December 1983; the place: Beirut, Lebanon; and the mission: determine the source and nature of a serious food-borne illness that had started ashore. I was a navy corpsman, a medical laboratory technician, coming off the USS Guam to assist the environmental medical team in isolating an outbreak of salmonella paratyphoid. This disease is a mankiller and the mission was very important, but as far as pistols go, I was completely untrained. A fellow corpsman, who was assigned to the Marine helicopter squadron operating off the coast of Guam, had given me the pistol.
He taught us how to think
I have no idea where he got the firearm; he simply pulled it out of his tiny locker located in the shared overflow berthing compartment. He handed it to me with the warning, “Whatever happens, for god’s sake, don’t load it because the Marines ashore would go crazy if they caught you with a loaded weapon.”
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On Oct. 23 of that year, a suicide bomber had driven a large truck filled with the equivalent of 21,000 pounds of TNT through the base perimeter and detonated the explosives on the side of the building that the Marines were using for their headquarters and barracks. One of the details from that tragedy that I have never forgotten was how the truck driver made it past the Marine sentries at the entrance gate. As the driver approached the gate without slowing down, the Marines recognized him as a threat, but did not fire their weapons because they were unloaded. They were unloaded because that was the default standard operating procedure of the day. Conventional wisdom at that time was that a loaded weapon equaled accidental discharges, which in turn injured Marines.
THE SENTRIES probably had a loaded magazine sitting right below an empty chamber. That is now called a “Condition 3” firearm, but back then, conditions were not taught to Marines or anyone else. They could have done a “type one” malfunction drill to put their rifles into action, but in those days, the importance of muscle memory or type-one malfunction drills were simply not taught. The mechanical skills and combat mindset required to react instinctively to an existential threat would not become ingrained in the Marine Corps or anywhere else until Cooper made these concepts fundamental to professional firearms training.
Without this knowledge, the sentries acted on instinct and in an attempt to save his fellow Marines, one of them threw himself in front of the truck. He became the first of 241 Marines to die that night.
FOUR YEARS LATER, I arrived at Camp Pendleton, Calif., as a second lieutenant who had just graduated from the Infantry Officer Course and was slated to take charge of a rifle platoon in the 1st Battalion, 9th Marines. The assignment was pure luck. The battalion was scheduled to be the Ground Combat Element of the very first Marine Expeditionary Unit, Special Operations Capable. That meant we were slated to do a six-month deployment to the Western Pacific aboard the ships of an Amphibious Ready Group instead of doing a six-month rotation with the 3rd Marine Division on Okinawa. That was a good deal and being the first SOC Battalion Landing Team meant that we were conducting all sorts of new and high-speed training with “fast” ropes and “rigid-raiding” craft. We were also alotted all the training ammunition a young lieutenant could ask for.
Unfortunately, we had no clear understanding of what to do with all of the extra small-arms ammunition. Every infantry battalion in the Marine Corps conducted an annual training rotation in Twentynine Palms, Calif. This was a month-long, Combined Arms training eXercise, or CAX, that included multiple sequences of live-fire assaults.
This is where infantry battalions burned up most of their annual training ammunition allocation; we had hundreds of thousands of rounds more than those guys. The extensive entry-level training required one to pass the qualification course with both the rifle and pistol. Anyone who has read Cooper’s doctrine knows, a rifle and pistol qualification isn’t combat training. It means that you are ready to start combat training. At the time, that concept was largely alien in both military and law enforcement circles. Tactical training was, doctrinally, the responsibility of the Fleet Marine Force, but up until 1988, they too had zero training to offer on the tactical employment of small arms.
IT ALL CHANGED when a bright 1st Marine Division staff officer developed a plan to address the evident training short fall. We received word of this when we returned from our first six-month shipboard deployment and our battalion was ordered to surrender our best sergeants to division schools. When an infantry battalion returns from a deployment it can anticipate losing hundreds of Marines in what was then known as the Fleet Assistance Program.
These Marines would augment the military police, base services, rifle range and many other facilities. The FAP was one of the many cost-saving programs used by the legendarily stingy Marine Corps to get the most bang out of its manpower buck. The standard operating procedure for units facing the FAP crunch was to hold back their talent in order to train the replacements who would be pouring in for the next deployment.
The courses we steered our sergeants towards were called the combat-rifle and combat-pistol instructor courses. Three of my acting squad leaders (all corporals) scored seats to these courses. We knew nothing about them except that the ammuntion requirement was 2,000 rounds per man per course; this hinted that they might be worth attending. The corporals were nervous about the pistol course because that was not a firearm they had ever qualified with.
I wasn’t in good shape either, having only qualified with the Colt 1911 in Quantico. Here, we were running 9mm Berettas, and I had never fired one. I remember walking into the classroom where we ended up spending very little time, and seeing posters with the four rules of weapons safety and color codes of mental awareness. I knew then that these two courses would be worth some investment of time and ammunition. I was wrong; the training we received there was worth its weight in gold!
THE SERGEANTS instructing these courses were beyond impressive – they were confident, knew the material and experts in weapons handling, tactical shooting and positive reinforcement. They taught us the syllabus that was doctrine for the famous Gunsite Academy founded by Cooper in 1976. Word for word, drill by drill, they taught us well. Cooper and his team had trained these Marines to perfection and then he had allowed his class outlines and drills to be used without any compensation for what was then and is now, extraordinarily valuable intellectual property.
The impact this training had on our Marines was impossible to quantify. We made it a priority to teach these techniques, tactics and procedures to the new Marines joining the company. The new lieutenants and staff sergeants we received for the next deployment cycle also attended the courses. Everyone who encountered Marines from our regiment noted straight trigger fingers and professional weapon handling skills. They sensed that they were observing men who considered the fundamentals of combat shooting to be the very foundation of the profession of arms. OUR SECOND MEU (SOC) training cycle was markedly different from the first. We crammed as much live-fire training into our schedule as possible, using Gunsite-designed line drills and simulators. It was intense. The Marines loved it. Our rotation through Twentynine Palms was a smashing success; the squads, platoons and rifle companies ran through the live fire and movement range progressions with ease.
I remember one of the coyotes (officers assigned to supervise and run the CAX) telling me that there was a noticeable difference between battalions coming from Camp Pendleton and those that were based at Camp Lejune or Hawaii. He added that they knew it was due to “those shooting courses you guys are teaching” at the division schools. In time, Cooper’s modern technique of small arms training would spread to every corner of America. The military, police and federal law enforcement use it to this day, and there are hundreds of schools across America that teach it to students who want to be responsible for their own safety and need to learn how.
I’M A HISTORY BUFF with a near-encyclopedic knowledge of the Vietnam War. I’ve studied thousands of photographs from that conflict; my father and two of my uncles fought there and have shared many stories about their time working the Leatherneck Square, Rockpile and the infamous Arizona territory. Look at photos of Marines or soldiers fighting in Vietnam and compare them with photographs from Afghanistan or Iraq today and you can see for yourself that the way grunts used to handle their weapons is completely different from how they handle them now.
Jeff Cooper single handedly did that, and without fanfare or self promotion. He did much more too; he taught us how to think. I spent eight years in Afghanistan, all of it outside the wire embedded in various Afghan communities. During that time I was given the opportunity to design reconstruction projects in the contested provinces of Nangarhar, Kunar, Nimroz and the Hellmand. We did not take the normal approach used by traditional security contractors. We did not have armored SUVs or heavily reinforced compounds. We moved in local vehicles, wearing local clothes and were responsible for our own security, a position advocated by Cooper repeatedly in his insightful lessons.
We used what my good friend and former Gunsite instructor John “Mullah” Binns called the Jeff Cooper El Salvador option for securing our compounds. We had exterior guards, but they were only armed with sawed-off shotguns. Their job was to fire them and run if we were attacked. The high-end military-grade ordinance was inside the compound with trained expats. We didn’t want to leave AK-47s or RPK machineguns outside of our buildings where they could be used against us if our minimal exterior security failed, which was likely to happen.
We didn’t put our 30-foot RPG screens on top of the compound walls either, like every other Western-aid implementer in the country. Our exterior walls looked exactly like every other compounds’ exterior walls. If you jumped over them, you landed on top of concertina wire; if you got through the concertina, you then had to get past the dogs; if you got past the dogs, you had to deal with us – and we knew what we were doing with the multiple weapon systems stored in our compounds. Many international compounds in Afghanistan were attacked by the Taliban over the years, but they never attacked one of ours, and I think that was, in part, due to our unique security posture, developed by Cooper.
Jeff Cooper and his team had trained these Marines to perfection
THE COMBAT MINDSET, color code of mental awareness and four rules of weapons safety were the foundation on which I based my security procedures in Afghanistan, and they served me well in some pretty tough situations. I survived eight years to return home relatively unscathed, and I am convinced that Jeff Cooper had much to do with that. If you carry a gun for living, you too are benefiting from the legacy of Lt. Col. Cooper. It is impossible to calculate the number of marines, soldiers, SEALs, police officers as well as trained civilians who are alive today thanks to the modernization of gun handling and combat marksmanship that was developed, refined and introduced to America by this lion of a man. He should never be forgotten as long as free men roam this world with the rights and ability to defend themselves against those who would victimize them through criminality or tyranny. ASJ
STORY BY TIM LYNCH • PHOTOGRAPHS COURTESY OF GUNSITE ACADEMY
Face it, you are not good enough! If you are still reading this it means you are a person that I want to talk to. Let me explain: Consider top level Olympic athletes. How often do you think Michael Phelps looks at himself in the mirror and thinks he is good enough for his next race? How many times does Tiger Woods, Serena Williams, or any other top level star rest on their laurels?
On the flip side, Phelps doesn’t train by kicking around the kiddie pool either. What I am say is the instant you look at your fighting skills and say “I am ready”… you just lost. The instant we think “I am ready”, we ramp down our training.
We don’t push as hard. When your groups are acceptable to you, you don’t continue to improve. What does qualification mean? Well it means someone met a standard, standards can vary dramatically depending on who created them and what the budget is. Yes, budgets of all things help define standards.
When you think of qualification as it applies to firearms it normally it means that there is some sort of score involved, as well as time limits and conditions. The conditions, number of shots sequence etc are very defined and spelled out in detail. For example, 25 years ago when I was qualifying for my job as a military police officer, we had to do such things as wait for the buzzer then draw and fire two shots in six seconds sort of thing. There were reloads thrown in and even a barricade to work around.
We still knew exactly what was expected, exactly how to do it and how many hits we needed to pass. For an entire week of my Academy we practiced nothing but how to pass the test to be qualified. At the end I received a passing score…yay, I passed the qualification, but I was still in no way or form ready to get into a gunfight. This kind of “qualification” is not limited to just military police officers. Police, corrections, private security, it is all based on a passable standard… for the masses. How do you get EVERYONE through qualification?…you make it easy!
If a qualification standard is set too high then you limit the amount of people capable of doing the job. There is an age old mantra in the gun world when it comes to training vs qualification:
“Institutionalized inertia hampers progress (Wilson, 2018)” Institutionalized inertia refers to the fact that organizations are very slow to change how they do things. Logic being that if it worked yesterday, then why won’t it work tomorrow?
Think of qualification as a pipeline where untrained recruits go into the pipe and a “qualified” gun carrier exits. Failures in the standard slow down the entire process with re-shoots and remedial training. Now think of the qualification standard for a Florida Concealed Weapons or Firearms License. It is simply demonstrate safety and proficiency. My own qualification years ago was a 22 lr round fired into a bucket of water without hurting myself or anyone else. Ask yourself the question, how comfortable do you actually feel standing next to someone on the range that the only proof of competency that qualified them to carry a firearm, was firing one round into a bucket of water?
The qualification standards that we here at FFT use are FAR more stringent than the State requirements and yes we DO refuse certificates to those that cannot pass our CWP qual. Many civilian schools have qualification standards that you must pass to move on. I attended such a school earlier on this year. Every day for a week the only shooting we performed was in preparation for the test…. At the end of the course, the only new skill we learned was the ones required to complete the test.
What I did get however was a score that in the end, is the final point of qualification. Scores attached to a standard are defensible in a courtroom be it a civilian or a police officer, BUT scores do not keep you alive in a real world, violent, visceral, terrifying fight. Some firearms training schools require you to pass a test and get a “qualification” score before you can move up to the next level.
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I know people who have taken very expensive courses over and over again trying to pass their qualification standard. I asked, “What does this qualification get you?” The reply was we can come back and go to level 2. I answered “You have to pay more money to get good enough to give them even more money?” Hmm…something to think about. Interestingly other than the CWFL qualification class, you will find very few actual scored standards with us (FFT). In one of our all day training courses, we will go through over 500 rounds at a minimum and the only standard we care about is that you are open to try learning something new. We want you to learn about your own skillsets, where you are how to improve, what to work on and then leave a little better with the gun you brought with you along with skills to practice.
What is Training?
So what is training? Training is stepping outside of what is comfortable, to be taught a skill that you do not know, to have a teacher or instructor TEACH or INSTRUCT you in something new, or something you are struggling with. Practice is recreating those skills learned in training and repeating them over and over again. When we train we have an expert, coach, and mentor to demonstrate specific skill sets and have us recreate them under skilled supervision, and then when ready do so again given the associated stimulus and even stress. The best firearms training you can do is the one where at the end you are asked to determine for yourself the skills necessary to perform the tasks. For example, here at FFT, during most of our advanced classes and after a full day of skills development, we present you with shoot and no shoot targets in a given scenario.
The student has to negotiate the scenario without previously knowing where the targets are, which ones are ok to shoot, which ones are not to be shot, what order to shoot them in, or how many rounds each target needs. They have to finger it out, use the skills taught and get the job done as soon as the blindfold is removed. Quite often students completely shut down, going into stimulus overload and get so overwhelmed the self-induced stress… that they cannot think clearly enough to engage. Many just stop and ask for a time out, or a restart… Now imagine this same event but, it’s not in a controlled safe environment at the range, it is a parking lot with multiple actual assailants mixed in with multiple innocent bystanders.
How are they going to do? The problem with real training is that it is messy. When moving, shooting, communicating, decision making and pushing the limits of your individual skill, your target quite often does not look like something we are proud of or what to share on Facebook. In fact, if you fire an intensive stressful series of drills and have what would be considered a perfect group, it really means you held back, gamed the drill or didn’t push yourself. So let’s look at a qualification example and compare them to your own experiences. A rifle qualification we helped someone with a few months ago consisted of 30 rounds at 50 yards. 10 rounds standing, 10 rounds kneeling, and 10 rounds prone. Only 18 rounds out of 30 were required to be a on a full sized target before they could carry the rifle on duty. Their life is being protected with a slightly better than 50 percent accuracy rate. For handgun many police agencies for 40 rounds once a year most of which is between 3-5 yards and need a 32/40 to pass. Other agencies make it a bit harder extending out the distance but have specifications like must pass twice in a row or 3/6 times to meet the standard.
But in general, it’s a case of, qualification to lowest cost….which ultimately means lowest standard! Fortunately not all is lost in the battle of score vs skill. Sgt Paul Wood from the Ft. Collins Colorado Police Department has published some great findings on the subject. It is his belief that agencies are putting too much concern on scores and not enough on training. Court cases require that departments train their officers, not shoot for score (Wood, 2018).
It is his belief that agencies have a legal obligation to train their officers rather than just shoot for score and is able to cite multiple court cases in his article that support his opinion. He believes that agencies should find a medium between qualification standards and training. If only a certain amount of rounds and time are allowed per officer per year cut the standard that gets recorded and up the training. He also recommends that officers attend outside training on their own, but cautions that not all outside schools are the same. So what does all this mean? If you need a set standard that must be passed in order to do a job, pass the test and move on. A barely passing and a perfect score mean very little in the grand scheme of things compared to actual REALISTIC TRAINING. The attacker with the knife trying to end your life does not care about your scorecard! Get out of the kiddie pool, get off the square range and train like you are not good enough. An unapologetic admission that you are not good enough!
By Brad Axsom Senior instructor with Florida Firearms Training
Every day, women become less of a minority amongst American gun owners. The trend data shows that women feel responsible for their own protection and are taking the necessary steps to ensure it.
No one knows your home like you do. Commit to memory a mental snapshot of your view from each engagement area. These measurements now translate to real environments filled with furniture, fixtures, lighting and sounds.
Even more interesting is the quietly growing number of females who are participating in self-defense firearms courses that go beyond the basics. What these courses offer are aspects of shooting that relate directly to real life. Spatial and situational awareness as well as firearm manipulation techniques are just a few of those concepts.
The combination of these skill sets begins to introduce a new shooter to thinking outside of the gun. They learn what the gun’s role needs to be depending on the wide variety of potential situations, and there are a number of ways to incorporate this into your home and range practice. By combining real-to-you environments, distances and manipulation techniques you become better prepared for the world outside of the range. After all, the reason so many women carry and have home-defense firearms is to be prepared if they must use them. Aim to transform your plinking time to reality-inspired training by designing a training plan that builds mental and physical proficiency in your daily life.
Training in Context
To obtain a concealed-carry permit, people must pass proficiency shooting requirements. Those vary from state to state, but most have a minimum standard of 3 to 10 yards. Much of this comes from the self-defense magic number of 7 yards, or 21 feet. Though it does establish a baseline, 7 yards is rather limiting and often becomes a comfort zone that many shooters fail to train beyond. Rarely are the circumstances such that a deadly force encounter occurs at a nice, neat 7 yards, and more importantly, there are other distances that more accurately relate to your unique living situation and are worth considering when building your training regimen.
The distance from your pillow to the bedroom door could be as little as 4 feet. A stairwell comprised of 16 steps measures roughly 13 feet from the first step to the landing.
Transferring each to the gun range gives you real, scenario-based distances that are applicable to your home.
Grab a measuring tape and reintroduce yourself to your home. What is the shortest, average and longest distance from which an intruder could attack you? For example: The average American bedroom measures 120 square feet and is required by building code R304 to have no less than 7 linear feet in any direction. Translation: The distance from your pillow to the bedroom door could be as little as 4 feet. A stairwell comprised of 16 steps measures roughly 13 feet from the first step to the landing. For some, the longest distance in your home may exceed the 21-foot distance where so many of us are comfortable shooting.
No one knows your home like you do. Commit to memory a mental snapshot of your view from each engagement area. These measurements now translate to real environments filled with furniture, fixtures, lighting and sounds. The values may be uncomfortably close and personal or surprisingly farther than you expected. Transferring each to the gun range gives you real, scenario-based distances that are applicable to your home.
For those carrying concealed, it is worth repeating this exercise for other places and spaces you frequent. A long aisle at the grocery store could measure 46 feet or more. What is the distance from the parking garage floor entrance to your regular parking space? Translate these distances into your personal training plan. Set your targets at distances meaningful to your everyday life and bring an element of reality into the artificial training environment of the square range. While it is our hope that we are never faced with a situation requiring us to take that long shot, it is our responsibility to be proficient at all relative distances.
Training in Character
Set your target at your closest, middle and longest distance and practice each one. Working your longest distance first will force you to slow down and focus. Close your eyes and visualize the environment, the sounds of your home, what it feels like to be in that space. Now get into character and imagine: There is an intruder brandishing a weapon and making threats to your life as they menacingly advance towards you. Choose to be confident, calm, focused and in control. Open your eyes and maintain this mental image and mindset as you draw, acquire your sight picture and alignment, press the trigger and follow through.
Complete the sequence of fire with a visual scan and assess as you visualize, searching the area around the downed intruder to confirm they are no longer a threat to you and that they didn’t bring friends. Look around and behind you, maintaining muzzle awareness at all times, and keep your firearm pointed down range at your imagined threat. Where are your kids? Where is the dog? Just because rounds are fired doesn’t mean your job is done. Breathe. For the sake of practice, re-holster, reset your mind, your gear and your target distance for another round.
Look around and behind you, maintaining muzzle awareness at all times, and keep your firearm pointed down range at your imagined threat. Where are your kids? Where is the dog? Just because rounds are fired doesn’t mean your job is done.
Top athletes use this mental rehearsal technique to connect the psychological and physical components of a performance or event for optimal results under stress. The more vivid imagery you choose, the greater confidence and control you will have under stress. Those training with personal protection in mind fully expect that critical life-saving moment will be an extreme and stressful experience. Build in the necessary survival mindset into every dry-fire and live-fire training session.
Breaking away from training at comfortable distances and areas where you already excel can result in less than ideal-looking targets, initially. Become less focused on making targets worthy of bragging rights and more concerned with spending your time and ammunition working on perfecting the tough stuff. With a little planning, you can make your next trip to the range a more meaningful one by working on the scenarios, real-world distances and life-saving mindset to hone your shooting skills even further.
You just may find that a measuring tape could be the next accessory you add to your range bag! ASJ